Evapotranspiration (ET) is an essential component of the water balance. Any attempt to improve water use efficiency must be based on reliable estimates of ET, which includes water evaporation from land and water surfaces and transpiration by vegetation. ET varies regionally and seasonally according to weather and wind conditions. Remote sensing based agro-meteorological models are presently most suited for estimating crop water use at both field and regional scales. Numerous ET algorithms have been developed to make use of remote sensing data acquired by sensors on airborne and satellite platforms. The use of remote sensing to estimate ET is presently being developed along two approaches: (a) land surface energy balance (EB) method and (b) Reflectance based crop coefficient and reference ET approach. The reported estimation accuracy varied from 67 to 97% for daily ET and above 94% for seasonal ET indicating that they have the potential to estimate regional ET accurately. Automated contours are not confined to specific pre-determined geographic areas (as in MLRA), require less time and cost. The spatial and temporal remote sensing data from the existing set of earth observing satellite platforms are not sufficient enough to be used in the estimation of spatially distributed ET for on-farm irrigation management purposes, especially at a field scale level (~10 to 200 ha). However, research opportunities exist to improve the spatial and temporal resolution of ET by developing algorithms to increase the spatial resolution of reflectance and surface temperature data derived from K1VHRR/Landsat/ASTER/MODIS images using same/other-sensor high resolution multi-spectral images.
Algorithms, Evapotranspiration, Radiometric, Radiation, Remote sensing
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