Vigi George M Hari N


Harpullia arborea (Blanco) Radlk., Sapindaceae, known as “black doll’s eyes” or “tulip tree” is a rainforest tree distributed in the tropical forests of peninsular India. Out of the 26 species of the genus, H. arborea is therapeutically more studied and widely used in folk and ayurvedic medicine. In this work, anatomical study of the leaves and stem of H. arborea was performed to provide a microscopical diagnosis for its characterization due to its increasing use in folk and ayurvedic medicine and its differentiation from other species with the same popular name. Standard light and scanning electron microscopy procedures were carried out using paradermal sections of leaf surfaces and transverse sections of lamina, midrib, and petiole. Stem preparations include longitudinal, radial and transverse sections of tertiary branches. The leaf epidermis with stellate non-glandular trichomes, cyclocytic stomata, mucilaginous cells and mesophyll without secretory sclereids, and the stem with confluent axial parenchyma, biseriate xylem rays, and the presence of rhomboidal prismatic crystals in the axial cells are the diagnostic microscopic features of the species. This structural characterization of the stem and leaf allows the identification of H.arborea, allowing certification of the authenticity of raw material.




Anatomy, Cyclocytic stomata, Confluent parenchyma, Harpullia arborea, Sapindaceae

Abdelkader, M. S. A., Rateb, M. E., Mohamed, G. A. & Jaspars, M. (2016). Harpulliasides A and B: Two new benzeneacetic acid derivatives from Harpullia pendula. Phytochemistry Letters, 15, 131–135. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytol.2015.12.006
Acevedo-Rodríguez, P., van Welzen, P. C., Adema, F. & van der Ham, R. W. J. M. (2010). Sapindaceae. In K. Kubitzki (Ed.), Flowering Plants. Eudicots (pp. 357–407). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-14397-7_17
Adema, F., Leenhouts, P.W. & van Welzen, P. C. (1994). Flora Malesiana. Series I, Spermatophyta, Volume 11, Part 3: Sapindaceae. Rijksherbarium.
Areces-Berazain, F., Hinsinger, D. D. & Strijk, J. S. (2021). Genome-wide supermatrix analyses of maples (Acer, Sapindaceae) reveal recurring inter-continental migration, mass extinction, and rapid lineage divergence. Genomics, 113(2), 681-692. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ygeno.2021.01.014
Bora, P. J. & Kumar, Y. (2003). Floristic diversity of Assam: study of Pabitora wildlife sanctuary. Daya Books.
Buerki, S., Callmander, M. W., Acevedo‐Rodriguez, P., Lowry, P. P., Munzinger, J., Bailey, P. & Forest, F. (2021). An updated infra‐familial classification of Sapindaceae based on targeted enrichment data. American Journal of Botany, 108(7), 1234-1251. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajb2.1693
Buijsen, J. R. (1995). Leaf anatomy of Harpullia, Majidea and Conchopetalum (Sapindaceae). Blumea: Journal of Plant Taxonomy and Plant Geography, 40(2), 345–361.
Buijsen, J. R. M., van Welzen, P. C. & Van Der Ham, R. W. J. M. (2003). A phylogenetic analysis of Harpullia (Sapindaceae) with notes on historical biogeography. Systematic Botany, 28(1), 106–117. https://doi.org/10.1043/0363-6445-28.1.106
Cutler, D. F., Botha, C. E. J., Stevenson, D. W. & William, D. (2008). Plant anatomy: an applied approach. Blackwell Pub.
Dickison, W. C. (2000). Integrative plant anatomy. Academic Press.
Dilcher, D. L. (1974). Approaches to the identification of angiosperm leaf remains. The Botanical Review, 40(1), 1–157. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02860067
Evert, R. F. (2006). Esau’s Plant Anatomy, Meristems, Cells, and Tissues of the Plant Body: their Structure, Function, and Development. 3rd edn.
Gowri, S. & Vasantha, K. (2010). Solvent Based Effectiveness of Antibacterial and Phytochemical Derivatized from the Seeds of Harpullia arborea (Blanco) Radlk. (Sapindaceae. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management, 13(4). https://doi.org/10.4314/jase m.v13i4.55444
Hickey, L. J. (1973). Classification of the Architecture of Dicotyledonous Leaves. American Journal of Botany, 60(1), 17. https://doi.org/10.2307/2441319
IAWA Committee. (1989). IAWA list of microscopic features for hardwood identification. IAWA Bulletin n.S., 10(3), 219–332. https://doi.org/10.1163/22941932-20160151
Khan, M. R., Kihara, M. & Omoloso, A. D. (2001). Antimicrobial activity of Harpullia ramiflora. Fitoterapia, 72(3), 298–300. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0367-326X(00)00299-9
Klaassen, R. K. W. M. (1999). Wood anatomy of the Sapindceae. IAWA Journal Supplement 2, Published for the International Association of Wood Anatomists at the National Herbarium of the Netherlands.
Leenhouts, P. W. (1985). An attempt towards a natural system of Harpullia (Sapindaceae). Blumea: Biodiversity, Evolution and Biogeography of Plants, 31(1), 219–234.
Lipipun, V., Kurokawa, M., Suttisri, R., Taweechotipatr, P., Pramyothin, P., Hattori, M. & Shiraki, K. (2003). Efficacy of Thai medicinal plant extracts against herpes simplex virus type 1 infection in vitro and in vivo. Antiviral Research, 60(3), 175–180. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0166-3542(03)00152-9
Metcalfe, C. R., Chalk, L. (1950). Anatomy of the dicotyledons Vol.1. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
Nabil, M., Ghaly, N. S., Kassem, I. A., Grace, M. H. & Melek, F. R. (2019). Two Triterpenoid Saponins with alpha-glucosidase Inhibitory Activity from Harpullia pendula Seed Extract. Pharmacognosy Journal, 11(6s). 10.5530/pj.2019.11.214
Pace, M. R., Gerolamo, C. S., Onyenedum, J. G., Terrazas, T., Victorio, M. P., Cunha Neto, I. L. & Angyalossy, V. (2022). The wood anatomy of Sapindales: diversity and evolution of wood characters. Brazilian Journal of Botany, 1-58. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40415-021-00764-2
Poovapatthanachart, R. (2003). Phytochemical study of Harpullia Arborea leaves. Chulalongkorn University.
Prashith Kekuda, T.R. & Vinayaka, K. S. (2017). Inhibitory activity of Harpullia arborea (Blanco) Radlk. and Hydnocarpus pentandra (Buch.-Ham.) Oken against seed-borne fungi. Journal of Medicinal Plants, 5(4), 114-117.
Radlkofer, L. (1933). Sapindaceae. Das Pflanzenreich IV, 165 (Heft 98a-h), ed. A. Engler. Leipzig: Verlag von Wilhelm Engelmann.
Raghavendra, H. L., Prashith Kekuda, T. R., Karthik, K. N. & Ankith, G. N. (2017). Antiradical, Antibacterial And Antifungal Activity Of Harpullia Arborea (Blanco) Radlk. (Sapindaceae). International Journal of Current Pharmaceutical Research, 9(5), 32–36. https://doi.org/10.22159/ijcpr.2017v9i5.22133
Solereder, H. (1908). Systematic Anatomy of the Dicotyledons A Handbook for Laboratories of Pure and Applied Botany. Volume 1. Clarendon Press.
Talip, N., Cutler, D. F., Puad, A. A., Ismail, B. S., Ruzi, A. R. & Juhari, A. A. (2017). Diagnostic and systematic significance of petiole anatomy in the identification of Hopea species (Dipterocarpaceae). South African Journal of Botany, 111, 111-125. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.20 17.03.008
Tumewu, L., Apryani, E., Santi, M. R., Wahyuni, T. S., Permanasari, A. A., Adianti, M. & Hotta, H. (2014). Anti Hepatitis C virus activity screening on Harpullia arborea extracts and isolated compound.
Udayan, P., George, S., Tushar, K. & Balachandran, I. (2005). Medicinal Plants used by the Kaadar tribes of Sholayar forest Thrissur district, Kerala. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge (IJTK), 04(2), 159–163.
Voutquenne, L., Guinot, P., Froissard, C., Thoison, O., Litaudon, M. & Lavaud, C. (2005). Haemolytic acylated triterpenoid saponins from Harpullia austro-caledonica. Phytochemistry, 66(7), 825–835. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2005.02.009
Research Articles

How to Cite

Authentication of Harpullia arborea (Blanco) Radlk. - a traditional medicinal plant from India using microscopic techniques. (2022). Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 14(2), 575-581. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v14i2.3456