##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

Mukesh Kumar Indu Sharma Praveen Kumar Verma Bikram Jit Singh Raj Singh Sushil Kumar Upadhyay

Abstract

Ficus L., commonly known as Fig, is a member of the family Moraceae (mulberry family) comprises 37 genera and approximately 1,100 species distributed in diverse ecosystems, especially in tropical and temperate regions of the world. The Ficus genus stands out as a keystone resource provider in many tropical forests, which is probably because of continuous non-seasonal fruiting in many species. It is one of the largest genera in the angiosperms about 750 species. The present study was carried out in the Forest Research Institute (FRI) campus, Dehradun (Uttarakhand), India. The phytodiversity of Ficus L. and their socio-economic values worked out during the investigation, religious-spiritual attachment, food of wild animals, ethnomedicinal and timber significance. There were 16 species of Ficus L. recorded from New Forest, FRI, Dehradun based on the morphological observations of taxonomically significant characteristics. The species found in FRI New Forest Dehradun were, Ficus benjamina, F. religiosa, F. racemosa, F. rumphii, F. retusa, F. krishnae, F. elastica, F. virens, F. semicordata, F. auriculata, F. hispida, F. pumila, F. palmata, F. drupacea, F. benghalensis, F. pomifera. Out of the notified 16 species of Ficus, 11 species were trees, 3 shrubs and 2 climbers in nature. The maximum leaf size (30×27cm2) was reported in F. auriculata, followed by F. semicordata (28×10cm2), F. benghalensis (25×11cm2). However, minimum leaf size was noticed in F. benjamina (4×2cm2) and F. retusa (4×3cm2). Among, 15 species, axillary fig (fruit) arrangement was observed, while one species (F. racemosa) has stem position of fruits. The current finding is itself a pioneer study to present a glimpse of such immense species diversity of single genera from sub-valley areas and will be a milestone for future studies in conservation and management of these wild varieties.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

Keywords

Ficus L., Key-stone, Fig, Axillary fig, Dicotyledonae, Moraceae, Diversity

References
Abdulla, M.A., Ahmed, K.A.A., Luhoom, F.M.A. & Muhanid, M. (2010). Role of Ficus deltoidea extract in the enhancement of wound healing in experimental rats. Biomedical Research, 21 (3), 241-245.
Adebayo, E.A., Ishola, O.R., Taiwo, O.S., Majolagbe, O.N. & Adekeye, B.T. (2009). Evaluations of the methanol extract of Ficus exasperate stem bark, leaf and root for phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activities. African Journal of Plant Science, 3(12), 283-287.
Aggarwal, D., Upadhyay, S.K., Singh, R., Sehrawat, N., Yadav, M., Singh, M. & Kumar, V. (2020). Tissue culture propagation of Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennell: An important medicinal plant. Advances in Bioresearch, 11(5), 97-103. https://doi.org/10.15515/abr.0976-4585.11.5.97103.
Berg, C.C. & Corner, E.J.H. (2005). Moraceae – Ficus Flora Malesiana Series 1 (Seed Plants). National Herbarium of the Netherlands, 17(2), 1-730.
Berg, C.C. (2001). Flora neotropica monograph 83: Moreae, Artocarpeae, Dorstenia (Moraceae) with introductions to the family and Ficus and with additions and corrections to flora neotropicamonograph 7. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, NY. pp. 1-346
Berg, C.C. (2003). Flora Malesiana precursor for the treatment of Moraceae 1: The main subdivision of Ficus: The subgenera. Blumea, 48, 167-178. https://doi.org/10.3767/000651903X686132.
Berg, C.C. (2004). Flora Malesiana precursor for the treatment of Moraceae 6: Ficus sub-genus Sycomorus. Blumea, 49, 155-200. https://doi.org/10.3767/0006519 04X486278.
Berg, C.C., Corner, E.J.H. & Jarrett, F.M. (2006). Moraceae (Genera other than Ficus). Flora Malesiana Series 1 (Seed Plants) National Herbarium of the Netherlands, 17(1), 1-152.
Chang, S.S. & Wu, C.Y. (1998). Moraceae. In: Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae (eds., Chang, S.S. & Wu, C.Y.), 23, 1-219.
Chaudhary, L.B., Sudhakar, J.V., Kumar, A., Bajapai, O., Tiwari, R. & Murthy, G.V.S. (2012). Synopsis of the genus Ficus L. (Moraceae) in India. Taiwania. 57(2), 193-216. https://doi.org/10.6165/tai.2012.57(2).193.
Corner, E.J.H. (1975). New taxa of Ficus (Moraceae). Blumea, 22, 299-309.
Corner, E.J.H. (1981). Moraceae. In: A revised handbook to The Flora of Ceylon (ed., Dassanayake, M.D.), Oxford and IBH, New Delhi, India. 3, 230-279.
Devi, A., Dahiya, V.S., Upadhyay, S.K. & Singh, R. (2020). Antimicrobial acitivity and phytochemical constituents present in Syzium cumini (L) seed, leaves and bark extract. Plant Archives, 20(2), 7787-7790.
Dixon, D. J. (2003). A taxonomic revision of the Australian Ficus species in the section Malvanthera (Ficus subg. Urostigma: Moraceae). Telopea 10, 125-153.
Doharey, V., Kumar, M., Upadhyay, S.K., Singh, R. & Kumari, B. (2021). Pharmacognostical, physicochemical and pharmaceutical paradigm of ash gourd, Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) fruit. Plant Archives, 21(1), 249-252. https://doi.org/10.51470/PLANTARCHIVES.2021.v21.S1.041.
Gadgi, M. (1996). Documenting diversity: An experiment. Current Science, 70, 36.
King, G. (1887). The species of Ficus of the Indo-Malayan and Chinese countries. Annals of Royal Botanical Garden, Calcutta, 1, 1-185.
King, G. (1888). Ficus L. In: The Flora of British India (ed. Hooker, J.D.). L. Reeve & Company, London. 5, 494-537.
Kislev, M.E., Hartmann, A. & Bar-Yosef, O. (2006). Response to comment on early domesticated fig in the Jordan valley. Science, 314 (5806), 1683b. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1133748.
Kochummen, K.M. (1998). New species and varieties of Moraceae from Malaysia. Garden Bulletin of Singapore, 50, 197-219.
Kumar, A., Bajpai, O., Mishra, A.K., Sahu, N., Behera, S.K. & Chaudhary, L.B. (2011). Assessment of diversity in the genus Ficus L.(Moraceae) of Katerniaghat wildlife sanctuary, Uttar Pradesh, India. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 2(01), 78.
Kumar, S., Dimple, A., Tomer, V., Gat, Y. & Kumar. V (2018). Ficus religiosa: A wholesome medicinal tree. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 7(4), 32-37.
Lalla, J.K. (2005). Herbal medicines revisited. The Pharma Review, 12, 101-105.
Linnaeus, C. (1753). Species Plantarum volume 1 & volume 2. L. Salvi, Stockhlom.
Machado, C.A., Robbins, N., Gilbert, M.T.P. & Herre, E.A. (2005). Critical review of host specificity and its coevolutionary implications in the fig/fig-wasp mutualism. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 102(1), 6558-6565.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0501 840102.  
Molbo, D., Machado, C.A., Sevenster, J.G., Keller, L. & Herre, E.A. (2003). Cryptic species of fig-pollinating wasps: Implications for the evolution of the fig-wasp mutualism, sex allocation, and precision of adaptation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 100(10), 5867–5872.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0930903100.
Mousa, O., Vuorela, P., Kiviranta, J., Wahab, S.A., Hiltohen, R. & Vuorela, H. (1994). Bioactivity of certain Egyptian Ficus species, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 41, 71-76. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-8741(94)90060-4.
Moustafa, A.A (2020). A threatened introduced species (Ficus benghalensis L.) in Ismailia, Egypt. Intech Open, https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.8.
Mustafa, I., Rohmah, N.I., Jono, S., Jatmiko, Y.D. & Siswanto, D. (2020). The potency of endophytic bacteria isolated from Ficus septica as phytoremediation promoting agent of Cr (VI) contaminated soil. Biodiversitas. Journal of Biological Diversity, 21(5), https://doi.org/10.13057/biodiv/d210519.
Priyadarsana (1999). Ficus superb Miq. and F. fergusoni (King) Worthington (Moraceae): Two new reports from India. Journal of Bombay Natural History Society, 96, 492-493.
Rani, N. (1985). Ficus lbipila (Miq.) King (Moraceae)- A new record for India. Journal of Bombay Natural History Society, 82, 235-237
Sharma, A.K., Sharma, V., Sharma, V., Sharma, J.K. & Singh, R. (2020). Multifaceted potential of Eichhornia crassipes (Water Hyacinth) ladened with numerous value aided and therapeutic properties. Plant Archives, 20(Spl. 2), 2059-2065.
Sharma, D., Dangi, C.B.S. & Kaur, M.A. (2016). Review on pharmacological activities and therapeutic potentials of Ficus religiosa (Pipal). Indian Journal of Applied Research, 6(1), 623-626.
Shree Kumar, P.V. (1998). Six new records of Ficus L. (Moraceae) from Andaman-Nicobar Islands, India. Journal of Economic Taxonomy of Botany, 22, 199-203.
Singh, R., Upadhyay, S.K., Rani, A., Kumar, P., Kumar, A. & Sharma, P. (2019). Ethanobotanical study of Subhartipuram, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh, India. I. Diversity and pharmacological significance of trees. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 11(4), 782-794. https://doi.org/10.31838/ijpr/2019.11.04.078.
Singh, C., Chauhan, N., Rani, A. & Singh, R. (2020a). Restoration of world heritage site Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, Uttarakhand. Journal of Agriculture and Forest Meteorology Research, 3(5), 405-408.
Singh, C., Chauhan, N., Upadhyay, S.K. & Singh, R. (2020b). Phytochemistry and ethnopharmacological study of Adiantum capillus-veneris L. (Maidenhair fern). Plant Archives, 20(2), 3391-3398.
Singh, R., Upadhyay, S.K., Rani, A., Kumar, P. & A. Kumar (2020c). Ethanobotanical study of Subhartipuram, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh, India. II. Diversity and pharmacological significance of shrubs and climbers. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 12(2): 383-393. https://doi.org/10.31838/ijpr/2020.12.02.0050.
Singh, R., Upadhyay, S.K., Rani, A., Kumar, P., Sharma, P., Sharma, I., Singh, C., Chauhan, N. & Kumar, M. (2020d). Ethnobotanical study of weed flora at district Ambala, Haryana, India: Comprehensive medicinal and pharmacological aspects of plant resources. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 12(Spl.1), 1941-1956. https://doi.org/10.31838/ijpr/2020.SP1.223.
Singh, R., Upadhyay, S. K., Tuli, H.S., Singh, M., Kumar, V., Yadav, M., Aggarwal, D. & Kumar, S. (2020e). Ethnobotany and herbal medicine: Some local plants with anticancer activity. Bulletin of Pure and Applied Sciences (Botany), 39B(1), 57-64. https://doi.org/10.5958/2320-3196.2020.00009.9.
Singh, C., Chauhan, N., Upadhyay, S.K., Singh, R. & Rani, A. (2021a). The Himalayan natural resources: Challenges and conservation for sustainable development. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 10(1), 1643-1648.
Singh, R.,Upadhyay, S.K., Singh, B.J., Verma, R., Sharma, I., Sharma, P., Rani, A. & Singh, C. (2021b). Allelopathic effect of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh) on the growth of Aloe vera.  Plant Cell Biotechnology and Molecular Biology, 22(21&22), 94-100.
Tiwari, R., Sudhakar, V.J., Srivastava, A.K., Chaudhary, B.L., Murthy, G.V.S. & Durgapal, A. (2014). Taxonomy, distribution and diversity of Ficus palamata Forssk. Subsp. virgate (Roxb) Browicz (Moraceae) in India. Journal of Threatened Taxa, 6(9), 6172-6185.
Tiwari, S. & Talreja, S. (2020). Do you think disease and disorder are same?-Here is the comparative review to brash up your knowledge. Journal of Pharmacy and Scientific Research, 12(4), 462-468.
Tzeng, H.Y., Ou, C.H., Lu, F.Y. & Wang, C.C. (2009). Pollen morphology of Ficus L. (Moraceae) in Taiwan. Forest Research Quarterly, 31, 33-46.
Upadhyay, S.K. (2016a). Anthelmintic and food supplementary conscientiousness of apitoxin in poultry model. Research Journal of Recent Sciences, 5(10), 09-14.
Upadhyay, S.K. (2016b). Activity patterns of cell free supernatant of antagonistic microbial strains in rodents host-parasite systems. International Journal of Science and Research, 5(4), 332-336.
Upadhyay, S.K. (2016c). Allelopathic activities of specific microbial metabolites in the inland prawn fisheries off eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. International Journal of Scientific Research, 5(2), 415- 416. https://doi.org/10.15 373/22778179.
Whistler, W.A. (2000). Tropical ornamentals: A guide. Portland, OR, USA: Timber Press. 542p.
Wu, Z., Zhou, Z.K. & Gilber, M.G. (2003). Moraceae. In: Flora of China (eds. Wu. Z., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D.Y.). Science Press, Beijing, and Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis. US. 5, 21-73.
Citation Format
How to Cite
Kumar, M., Sharma, I. ., Verma, P. K., Singh, B. J. ., Singh, R., & Upadhyay, S. K. . (2021). A study on diversity and distribution of Ficus L. (Dicotyledonae: Moraceae) species at Forest Research Institute (FRI), Dehradun (Uttarakhand), India. Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 13(2), 552 - 560. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v13i2.2654
More Citation Formats:
Section
Research Articles

Most read articles by the same author(s)