Seed priming is controlled hydration of seeds to a level that allow pre-germinative metabolic activity to continue, but interrupt the emergence of the radicle. Seed priming improves seed performance, ensures uniformity and better establishment, enhances the yield in diverse environments, greater tolerance to environmental stress and helps to overcome dormancy. Change in seed water content, cell cycle regulation, modification of seed ultrastructure, management of oxidative stress and reserve mobilization are the major physiological and biochemical changes takes places during seed priming. Priming methods adopted should be simple and affordable for its easy spread and adaptability. Seed priming should be influenced by factors such as light, aeration, temperature, time and seed quality. Different methods of priming are hydropriming, osmopriming, halopriming, solid matrix priming, biopriming and hormonal priming. Seed priming had significant effect on agriculture. It will hasten and synchronize the germination, enhances the plant growth, have better stress resistance, increase the use efficiency of nutrients and water and have better weed suppression effect. The review paper discusses about seed priming, physiological and biochemical changes in seed priming, different methods of seed priming and its role in sustainable agriculture.
Seed priming, Seed priming methods, Physiological and biochemical changes in seed priming, Seed priming in agriculture
Alcantara, B. K., Machemer-Noonan, K., Silva Junior, F. G., and Azevedo, R. A. (2015). Dry priming of maize seeds reduces aluminum stress. PLoS ONE. [e-journal] 10(12): e0145742. Available: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0145742 [28 Nov. 2018].
Ali, A., Machado, V. S., and Hamill, A. S. (1990). Osmoconditioning of tomato and onion seeds. Scientia Horticulturae. 43(3-4): 213-224.
Ali, H., Iqbal, N., Shahzad, A.N., Sarwar,N., Ahmad, S., and Mehmood, A. (2013). Seed priming improves irrigation water use efficiency, yield and yield components of late sown wheat under limited water conditions. Turk. Agric. For. 37: 534-544.
Amici, G. B. (1830). Note on pollen action mode on stigmata. Annales Sciences NaturellesBotanique. 21: 329-332.
Anup, C. P., Prasad, M., Nataraj, S., Mayuri, N. G., Manbali, J., Hussain, A., and Kukkundoor, R. K. (2015). Proteomic analysis of elicitation of downy mildew disease resistance in pearl millet by seed priming with ?-aminobutyric acid and Pseudomonas fluorescens. J. Proteomics 120:58-74.
Anwar, M. P., Juraimi, A. S., Puteh, A., Selamat, A., Rahman, M. M., and Samedani, B. (2012). Seed priming influences weed competitiveness and productivity of aerobic rice. Acta AgriculturaeScandinavica Section B- Soil Plant Sci. 62 (6):499-509.
Arif, M., Ali, S., Shah, A., Javed, N., and A. Rashid. (2005). Seed priming maize for improving emergence and seedling growth. Sarhad J Agric. 21: 17-20.
Arif, M., Jan, M. T., Marwat, K. B., and Khan, M. A. (2008). Seed priming improves emergence and yield of soybean. Pak. J. Bot. 40(3): 1169-1177.
Arun, M. N., Hebbar, S. S., Bhanuprakas, K., and Senthivel, T. (2017). Seed priming improves irrigation water use efficiency, yield and yield components of summer cowpea under limited water conditions. Legume Res. 40(5): 864-871.
Bewley, J. D. and Black, M. (1978). Physiology and Biochemistry of Seeds in Relation to Germination. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 305-375.
Bisen, K., Keswani, C., Mishra, S., Saxena, A., Rakshit, A., and Singh, H. B. (2015). Unrealized potential of seed biopriming for versatile agriculture. In: Rakshit, A., Singh, H. B., and Sen, A. Nutrient Use Efficiency: from Basics to Advances (1stEd.). Springer, New Delhi, pp. 193-206.
Cantiliffe, D. J. (1981). Priming of lettuce for early and uniform emergence under conditions of environmental stress. Acta. Hortic. 122: 29-38.
Cantiliffe, D. J., Elballa, M., Guedes, A., Odell, G. B., Perkins-Veazie, P., Schultheis, J. R., Seale, D. N., Shuler, K. D., Tanne, I., and Watkins, J. T. (1988). Improving stand establishment of direct seeded vegetables in Florida. Proc. Florida State Hortic. Soc. 100: 213-216.
Caseiro, R., Bennett, M. A., and Marcos-Filho, J. (2004). Comparison of three priming techniques for onion seed lots differing in initial seed quality. Seed Sci. Technol. 32(2): 365-375.
Choudhary, D. K., Johri, B. N., and Prakash, A. (2008). Volatiles as priming agents that initiate plant growth and defence responses. Curr. Sci. 94 (5): 595-604.
Das, A., Boruah, R., Sharma, S. M., and Pegu, J. (2015). Seed priming - An effective method for crop production. Int. J. Crop Improv. 6(1): 83-86.
Dezfuli, P. M., Sharif-Zadeh, F., and Janmohammadi, M. (2008). Influence of priming techniques on seed germination behavior of maize inbred lines (Zea mays L.). J. Agric. Biol. Sci. 3(3): 22-25.
Eskandari, H. (2012). Germination and field performance of differentially matured seeds of tomato (Lycopersiconesculentum) as affected by seed priming. Int. J. Agric. Res. Rev. 2(6): 857-861.
Evelyn, J. S. (1664). A Discourse of Forest Trees and the Propagation of Timber. John Martin (Royal Society), London, 218p.
Evenari, M. (1984). Seed physiology: Its history from antiquity to the beginning of the 20thcentury. Bot. Rev. 50:119-142.
Farooq, M., Basra, S., Tabassum, M. A. R., and Afzal, I. (2006). Enhancing the performance of direct seeded fine rice by seed priming. Plant Prod. Sci. 9(4): 446 - 456.
Galhaut, L., Lespinay, A., Walker, D. J., Bernal, M. P., Correal, E., and Lutts, S. (2014). Seed priming of TrifoliumrepensL. improved germination and early seedling growth on heavy metal contaminated soil. Water Air Soil Pollut. 225: 1-15.
Ghiyasi, M., Seyahjani, A. A., Tajbakhsh, M., Amirnia, R., and Salehzadeh, H. (2008). Effect of osmopriming with polyethylene glycol (8000) on germination and seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivumL.) seeds under salt stress. Res. J. Biol. Sci. 3 (10): 1249-1251.
Haigh, A. M. and Barlow, E. W. R. (1987). Germination and priming of tomato, carrot, onion and sorghum seeds in a range of osmotica. J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 112: 202-208.
Harris, D. and Jones, M. (1997) On Farm seed priming to accelerate germination in rainfed, dry-seeded rice. Int. Rice Res. Notes. 22 (2): 30.
Harris, D., Rashid, A., Miraj, G., Arif, M., and Shah, H. (2007). ‘On-farm’ seed priming with zinc sulphate solution - A cost-effective way to increase the maize yields of resource-poor farmers. Field Crops Res. 102(2): 119-127.
Harris, D., Tripathi, R. S., and Joshi, A. (2002). On-farm seed priming to improve crop establishment and yield in dry direct-seeded rice. In: Pandey, S., Mortimer, M., Wade, L., Tuong, T. P., Lopes, K., and Hardy, B. (eds), Direct Seeding: Research Strategies And Opportunities. International Rice Research Institute, Manila, Philippines, pp. 231–240.
Hasanuzzaman, M. (2015). Seed Quality [on-line]. Available: https://hasanuzzaman.weebly. com/uploads/9/3/4/0/934025/seed_quality.pdf [15 Nov. 2018].
Ingenhousz, J. (1779). Experiments upon Vegetables. Elmsly and H. Payne, London, 455p.
Iqbal, M. and Ashraf, M. (2013). Gibberellic acid mediated induction of salt tolerance in wheat plants: Growth, ionic partitioning, photosynthesis, yield and hormonal homeostasis. Environ. Exp. Bot. 86: 76-85.
Jalali, A. H. and Selehi, F. (2013). Sugar beet yield as affected by seed priming and weed control. Arch. Agron. Soil Sci. 59: 281-288.
Jamil, M., Charnikhova, T., Verstappen, F., Ali, Z., Wainwright, H., and Bouwmeester, H. (2014). Effect of phosphate-based seed priming in strigolactone production in Striga hermonthicainfection in cereals. Weed Res. 54: 207-313.
Jisha, K. C. and Puthur, J. T. (2015). Seed priming with BABA (?-amino butyric acid): a cost- effective method of abiotic stress tolerance in Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek. Protoplasma. 253(2): 277-289.
Juraimi, A. S., Anwar, M. P., Selamat, A., Puteh, A., and Man, A. (2012). The influence of seed priming on weed suppression in aerobic rice. Pak. J. Weed. Sci. Res. 18: 257- 264.
Kalischuk, M. L., Johnson, D., and Kawchuk, L. M. (2015). Priming with a double-stranded DNA virus alters Brassica rapaseed architecture and facilitates a defense response. Gene. 557: 130-137.
Kanwar, R. and Mehta, D. K. (2017). Studies on solid matrix priming of seeds in bitter gourd (Momordica charantiaL.). J. Appl. Nat. Sci. 9(1): 395-401.
Khan, H. A., Ayub, C. M., Pervez, M. A., Bilal, R. M., Shahid, M. A., and Ziaf, K. (2009). Effect of seed priming with NaCl on salinity tolerance of hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) at seedling stage. Soil Environ. 28(1): 81-87.
Krol, P., Igielski, R., Pollmann, S., and Kepczynska, E. (2015). Priming of seeds with methyl jasmonate induced resistance to hemibiotrophFusarium oxysporumf. sp. Lycopersici in tomato via 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, salicylic acid, and flavonol accumulation. J. Plant Physiol. 179: 122-132.
Lutts, S., Benincasa, P., Wojtyla, L., Kubala, S. S., Pace, R., Lechowska, K., Quinet, M., and Garnczarska, M. (2016). Seed priming: New comprehensive approaches for an old empirical technique. In: New Challenges in Seed Biology - Basic and Translational Research Driving Seed Technology. Intech Open Limited, London, pp. 1-46.
Mahmoudi, H., Massoud, R.B., Baotour,O., Tarchone, I., Salah, I.B, Nasri, N., Adidi, W., Kaddour, R., Hannoufa, A., Lachaal, M., and Ouerghi, Z. (2012). Influence f different seed priming methods for improving salt stress tolerance in lettuce plants. J. Plant. Nutr. 35 (12): 1910-1922.
Mazed, H. E. M. K., Haque, N. M., Irin, I. J., Ashraful, M., Pulok, I., and Abdullah, A. A. M. (2015). Effect of seed priming on growth, yield and seed quality of chickpea BARI Chhola-6. 2015. Int. J. Multidiscip. Res. Dev. 2(7): 142-147.
Meena, R.P., Sendhil, R., Tripathi, S.C., Chander, S., Chhokar, R.S. and Sharma, R.K. 2013. Hydropriming of seed improves the water use efficiency of grain yield and economic return of wheat under different moisture regime. SAARC J. Agric. 11(2):149-159
Mondal, S. and Bose, B. (2014). An impact of seed priming on disease resistance: A review. In: Kharwar, R. N., Upadhyay, R. S., Dubey, N. K., and Raghuwanshi, R. (eds), Microbial Diversity and Biotechnology in Food Security (1stEd.). Springer, New Delhi, pp.193-203.
Muhammad, I., Kolla, M., Volker, R., and Gunter, N. (2015). Impact of nutrient seed priming on germination, seedling development, nutritional status and grain yield of maize. J. Plant Nutr. 38: 1803-1821.
Nakamura, S., Teranishi, T., and Aoki, M. (1982). Promoting effect of polyethylene glycol on the germinaiton of celery and Spinach seeds. J. Japan. Soc. Hort. Sci. 50: 461–467.
Pame, A. R., Kreye, C., Johnson, D., Heuer, S., and Becker, M. (2015). Effects of genotype, seed P concentration and seed priming on seedling vigor of rice. Exp. Agric. 51: 370- 381.
Paparella, S., Araujo, S. S., Rossi, G., Wijayasinghe, M., Carbonera, D., and Balestrazzi, A. (2015). Seed priming: State of the art and new prospectives. Plant Cell Rep. 34: 1281- 1293.
Raj, S. N., Shetty, N. P., and Shetty, H. S. (2004). Seed bio-priming with Pseudomonas fluorescens isolates enhances growth of pearl millet plants and induces resistance against downy mildew. Int. J. Pest Manag. 50(1): 41-48.
Sachs, J. (1859). About treatments modifying germination strength in seeds. Bot. Zeitung. 17: 177-188.
Sedghi, M., Nemat, A, and Esmielpour, B. 2012. Effect of seed priming on germination and seedling growth of two medicinal plants under salinity. Emir. J. Food Agric. 22 (2): 130-139.
Singh, A., Gupta, R., and Pandey, R. (2016). Rice seed priming with picomolar rutin enhances rhizosphericBacillus subtilis CIM colonization and plant growth. PLoS ONE. [e- journal] 11(1): e0146013. Available: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146013 [27 Nov. 2018].
Singh, D. K. and Pandey, U. B. (2003). Effect of hydration-dehydration and priming on seed germination and vigour of onion (Allium cepaL. var. Agrifound Dark Red) in field conditions. NHRDF Newsletter. 23(4): 13-15.
Singh, H., Morss, S., and Orton, T. J. (1985). Effects of osmotic pretreatment and storage on germination of celery seed. Seed Sci. Technol. 13: 551-558.
Singh, H. B. (2016). Seed biopriming: A comprehensive approach towards agricultural sustainability. Indian Phytopathol. 69(3): 203-209.
Singh, C.V., Maiti, D., and Variar, M. (2012). Effect of seed treatment and weed management practices on the growth of crop and weeds and productivity of upland rice. In: Agriculture Diversification, Climate Change Management and Livelihoods.Proceedings of 3rd International Agronomy Congress,26-30 November 2012, New Delhi, India
Singh, P. K., Pandita, V. K., Tomar, B. S., and Seth, R. (2015). Standardisation of priming treatments for enhancement of seed germination and field emergence in carrot. Indian J. Hortic. 72: 306-309.
Sivakalai, R. and Krishnaveni, K.2017. Effect of biopriming on seed yield and quality in pumpkincv CO 2. Int. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci. 6 (12): 85-90.
Sivasubramaniam, K., Geetha, R., Sujatha, K., Raja, K., Sripunitha, A., and Selvarani, R. (2011). Seed priming: Triumphs and tribulations. Madras Agric. J. 98(7-9): 197-209.
Sun, H., Lin, L., Wang, X., Wu, S., and Wang, X. (2011). Ascorbate-glutathione cycle of mitochondria in osmoprimed soybean cotyledons in response to imbibitional chilling injury. J. Plant Physiol. 168:226-232
Taylor, A. G., Allen, P. S., Bennett, M. A., Bradford, K. J., Burris, J. S., and Misra, M. K. (1998). Seed enhancements. Seed Sci. Res. 8(2): 245-256.
Varma, S. K., Jhorar, B.S., and Aggrwal, R.P. (1984). Effect of pre-sowing seed soaking in gibberellic acid ongermination and early seedling growth of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Cotton Dev. 14:23-28.
Venkatasubramanian, A. and Umarani, R. (2007). Evaluation of seed priming methods to improve seed performance of tomato (Lycoperisonesculentum), eggplant (Solanum elongena) and chilli (Capsicum annum). Seed Sci. Technol. 35(2): 487-490.
Yousof, F.I. (2013). Effect of rice seed priming with calcium chloride (CaCl2) on germination and seedling vigor under salinity stress. Mansoura J. Plant Prodn. 4 (4):523-535.
This work is licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) © Author (s)