D K Paul Nitu Kumari Sumona Sanyal


The quality of  surface water is deteriorating day by day due to various anthropogenic activities. Ganga water is assumed polluted almost in the entire strech of river. The medicinal plants may be useful for amelioration of pollution. The present work deals with the study of several chemical characteristics as well as microbial examination of water samples taken from few sites of Ganga river namely Krishna Ghat, Kali Ghat and N.I.T Ghat (Gandhi Ghat) at Patna. The study was foccused on the evaluation of antimicrobial effect of Moringa oleifera (sahjan) leaves extract in the Ganga water. The aqueous leaves extract of different concentrations (0.1%, 0.16%, 0.23%, 0.3%) showed ameliorating results on pH and chloride content of water as well as microbial activity. Significant ameliorating results were observed on pH and chloride content of water. pH was reduced from 8.1 to 7.4 and chloride was reduced from 82.36 mg/l to 48.14 mg/l under plant extract treatment. Colony Forming Unit (CFU) was assessed by standard plate count (SPC) method and was found to be 468 CFU/ml for raw water, which was reduced to 143 CFU/ml when treated with plant extract. Similar decreasing trend was observed in case of MPN of coliform. So extract of Moringa oleifera may also be applied to purify drinking water. Morever it will be cheaper for the people in comparision to other purification devices.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...




Drinking water, Ganga river, Moringa oleifera, Plant extract, Water pollution

Abdullah, T., Zahoor, T., Ahmed, W., and Saeed, M. (2014). Effect of Moringa oleifera seed extract on drinking water quality of some selected areas of district Faisalabad. Pakistan Journal of Food Science. 24(1):13 -17
Abu-Shanab, B.A., Adwan, G., Adwan, K.M., and Abu-Shanab, F. (2008). Efficacy of aqueous and ethanol extracts of some Palestinian medicinal plants for potential antibacterial activity. Islam Univ. J.Gaza. 16(2):77-86
Adriana, B., Almodovarl, A.N.M., Pereiral, C.T., and Mariangela, T.A. (2007). Antimicrobial efficacy of Curcuma zedoaria extract as assessed by linear regression compared with commercial mouthrinses. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology. 38(3): 440-445.
Akhtar, M., Hasany, S.M., Bhanger M.I., and Iqbal S. (2007) Sorption potential of Moringa oleifera pods for the removal of organic pollutants from aqueous solutions. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 141(3): 546- 556.
Ali, E.M., Muyibi, S.A., Hamzah, M., Alam, S.M.Z., and Salleh, M.R.M. (2010). Production of Natural Coagulant from Moringa Oleifera Seed for Application in Treatment of Low Turbidity Water. J. Water Resource and Protection. 2, 259-266. http://www.scrip.org/journal/jwarp).
Anwar, F., Latif, S., Ashraf, M., and Gilani, A.H. (2007). Moringa oleifera: a food plant with multiple medicinal uses. Phytotherapy Research. 21(1): 17-25. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Anwar.
APHA, AWWA and WEF (2005). Standard Methods for the Examinations of Water and Wastewater. A joint publication of the American Public Health Association (APHA), The American Water Works Association (AWWA), and the Water Environment Federation (WEF). (21st Ed). 1368.
Basra, S.M.A., Iqbal, Z., Rehman, K.U., Rehaman, H.U. and Ejaz, M.F. (2014). Time Course Changes in pH, Electrical Conductivity and Heavy Metals (Pb, Cr) of Wastewater Using Moringa oleifera Lam. Seed and Alum, a Comparative Evaluation. Journal of Applied Research and Technology. 12(3): 560-567.
Eilert, U., Wolters, B., and Nahrstedt, A. (1981). The antibiotic principle of seeds of Moringa oleifera and Moringa stenopetala. Planta medica. 42(1): 55-61.
Fahey, J.W. (2005). Moringa oleifera: A review of the medical evidence for its nutritional, therapeutic and prophylactic properties. Part 1. Trees for Life Journal. 1: 5
Fetter, C.W.B. (2011). Obituary-Groundwater. Published by National Groundwater Association. Wiley online library. 49(6) 949-949.
Francis, K.A., and Amos, B. (2009). Effectiveness of Moringa oleferia seed as coagulant for water purification. African Journal of Agricultural Research. 4: 119. Vol. 4 (1), 119-123.
Gassenschmidt, U., Jany, K., Tauscher, B., and Niebergall, H. (1995). Isolation and characterization of a flocculating protein from Moringa oleifera Lam. Biochemica Biophysica Acta. 43: 477-481.
Grabow, W., Slabert, J.L., Morgan, W.S.G., and Jahn, S.A. (1985). Toxicity and mutagenicity evaluation of water coagulated with Moringa oleifera seed preparations using fish, protozoan, bacterial, coliphage, enzyme, and Ames Salmonella assays, Water SA Manuscript. 11(1): 9 –14.
Grosvenor, P.W., Supriono, A., and Gray, D.O. (1995). Medicinal plants from Riau Province, Sumatra, Indonesia. Part 2: Antibacterial and antifungal activity. J. Ethnopharmacol. 45(2): 97-111.
Gopalakrishnan, L., Doriya, K., and Kumar, D.S. (2016). Moringa oleifera: A review on nutritive importance and its medicinal application. Food Science and Human Wellness. 5(2): 49-56.
Hendrawati, Y.I.R., Rohaeti, E., Effendi, H, and Darusman, L.K. (2016). The use of Moringa Oleifera seed powder as coagulant to improve the quality of wastewater and groundwater. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 311-10.
Iscen, C.F, Emiroglu, O., Ilhan, S., Arslan, N., Yilmaz, V., and Ahiska, S. (2008). Application of multivariate statistical techniques in the assessment of surface water quality in Uluabat Lake. Environmental Monitoring Assessment. 144 (1-3): 269-276.
Jaiswal, S.K., Gupta, V.K., Maurya, A., and Singh, R. (2017). Changes in water quality index of different Ghats of Ganges River in Patna. International Journal of Emerging Trends in Science & Technology. 04(08 ): 5549 – 5555.
Kondratieff, F., and Simmons, Jr.M. (1985). Microbial colonization of seston and free bacteria in an impounded river. Hydrobiologia. 128: 127-133.
Kumar, S., and Gopal, K. (1999). Screening of plant species for inhibition of bacterial population of raw water. Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A. Toxic Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering. 34(4): 975-987.
Lea, M. (2010). Bioremediation of turbid surface water using seed extract from Moringa oleifera Lam. (Drumstick) tree. Currents protocols in Microbiology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 16(1). Pp 16:1G.2.1 – 1G.2.14.
Mangale, S.M., Chonde, S.G., and Raut P.D. (2012). Use of Moringa Oleifera (Drumstick) Seed as Natural Absorbent and an Antimicrobial Agent for Ground Water Treatment. Research Journal of Recent Sciences, 1(3): 33-39.
Muyibi, S.A., and Evison, L.M. (1995). Optimizing physical parameters affecting coagulation of turbid water with Moringa oleifera seeds. Water Research. 29(12): 2689-2695.
Nancy, B.N., and Ezekiel, Y.K. (2014). Effects of Moringa Oleifera seeds on Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, pH and turbidity in water from selected sources in Kitale town, Kenya. Conference Paper.
Ndabigengesere, A., and Narasiah, K.S. (1998). Quality of water treated by coagulation using Moringa oleifera seeds. Water Research. 32(3): 781-791.
Njoku, I., and Adikwu, P. (1997). Toxicological studies reveal the absence of mycotoxins in Northeastern Nigeria. Int. J. Food Sci Nutrition. 51(3): 195-208.
Onuoha, S.C., and Alisa, C.O. (2013). Antimicrobial Potential of Leaf juice and Extracts of Moringa oleifera lam against some Human pathogenic Bacteria. Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences (IOSR-JPBS). Volume 5 (4): 37-42.
Patil, R.R., Jagadale, S.S., Gaikwad A.A., Mane A.V., Vathar, T.V., Anekar, N.R,. and Awasare, S.D. (20170. Use of Moringa Oleifera (Drumstick) seed as Natural Coagulant for Well & Bore well Water Treatment. International Journal of Engineering Research and Technology. 10 (1): 35-40.
Paul, D.K., and Sanyal, S. (2017). Assessment of seasonal variation of physicochemical characteristics of Sanjay Gandhi Jaivik Udyan pond, Patna (Bihar) India. Journal of Patna Science College. 5:91-107.
Postolachi, L., Rusu, V., Lupascu, T. and Maftuleac, A. (2015). Improvement of coagulation process for the Prut River water treatment using aluminum sulphate. Chem. J. Moldova, 10: 25-32.
Price, M.L., (1985). Revised by Davis K. (2000). The Moringa Tree. Echo Technical Note. http://www.pkdiet.com/pdf/food/drumstick/Morings1.PDF.
Rebecca, H., Sharon, M., Arbainsyah, A., and Lucienne, D. (2006). Moringa oleifera: medicinal and socio-economic uses. International Course on Economic Botany. National Herbarium Leiden, Netherlands. 2 – 6.
Sinha, S.N., Paul, D., and Biswas. K. (2016). Effects of Moringa oleifera Lam. and Azadirachta indica, A. Juss. leaf extract in treatment of tannery effluent. Our Nature. 14(1): 47-53.
Sood, A., Singh, K., Pandey, P., and Sharma, S. (2008). Assessment of bacterial indicators and physicochemical parameters to investigate pollution status of Gangetic river system of Uttarakhand (India). Ecolological Indicators. 8: 709-717.
Sowmeyan, R., Santosh, J., and Latha, R. (2011). Effectiveness of herbs in community water treatment. International Journal of Biochemistry and Bioinformatics. 1(11): 297-303.
Sotheeswaran, S., Nand, V., Maata, M, and Kanayathu, K. (2011). Moringa oliefera and other local seeds in water purification in developing countries. Research Journal of chemistry and environment. 15(2): 135 - 138. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/255484408_Moringa_oleifera_and_other_local_seeds_in_water_purification_in_developing_countries.
Thilza, I.B, Sanni, S., Zakari, A.I, Sanni, F.S., Muhammed, T., and Musa, B.J (2010). In vitro antimicrobial activity of water extract of Moringa oleifera leaf stalk on bacteria normally implicated in eye disease. Academia Arena. 2(6): 80-83.
Tunggolou, J. and Payus, C. (2017). Application of Moringa oleifera Plant as Water Purifier for Drinking Water Purposes. Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 10: 268-275.
Valle, D.L., Andrade, J.I., Puzon, JJM., Cabrera, E.C., and Windell, L.R. (2015). Antibacterial activities of ethanol extracts of Philippine medicinal plants against multidrug-resistant bacteria. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 5(7): 532-540.
Varshney, C.K. (1982). Water Pollution and Management, Review. South Asian Publishing. New Delhi. 152
Vieira, A.M.S., Vieira, M.F., Silva, G.F., Araujo, A.A., Fagundes-Klen, M.R., Veit, M.T., and Bergamasco, R. (2010a). Use of Moringa oleifera seed as a natural adsorbent for wastewater treatment. Water Air Soil Pollution. 206 (1-4): 273-281.
Vieira, G.H.F., Mourao, J.A., Angela, A.M., Costa, R.A., and Vieira. R.H.S.F. (2010b). Antibacterial effect (In vitro) of Moringa oleifera and Annona muricate against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo. 52(3):129-132
WHO (2008). Guidelines for drinking-water quality [Electronic resource]. Third edition: incorporating 1st and 2nd addenda, Vol.1. Geneva, World Health Organization.
Willey, J.M., Sherwood, L.M., and Woolverton, C.J. (2008). Prescott, Harley, and Klein’s Microbiology. McGraw Hill, NY. Edition 7th. 123-156.
World Health Organisation. (2004). Chemicals from water treatment and distribution – Retrieved October 26, 2018 from http://www.who.int>dwq .
Citation Format
How to Cite
Paul, D. K., Kumari, N., & Sanyal, S. (2018). Study on the ameliorating effect of aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera on Ganga water. Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 10(4), 1230–1237. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v10i4.1918
More Citation Formats:
Research Articles