Satinder Kaur Kirandeep Kaur Arvinder kaur


Present study envisaged evaluating the effect of Basic violet-1 (BV-1, CI No. 42535), a widely used azo dye in dyeing and textile industries, on antioxidant enzymes of Labeo rohita fingerlings (7.6 – 11.3 cm length and 16.1 – 26.7 g weight). Antioxidant enzymes such as acetylcholinesterase (AChE), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) were estimated in liver, kidney, gill, muscle and brain of the fish as markers for the stress of BV-1. After 96h, the fish were kept for a recovery period of 30 days and activity of enzymes was determined at 15 day intervals. Significant dose dependent increase over control in the activity of AST (79.69%) and ALT (50.07%) was observed in all the tissues while a significant decrease over control was observed in AChE (717.43%) and SDH (173.07%) activity in all the tissues. Alterations in the activity of enzymes could probably be due to a defense against oxidative damage caused by the dye and prolonged effect till the end of the recovery period could be a metabolic adaptation of the fish to the stress of the present dye. The results indicate that the dye is very toxic to L. rohita as there was a marked change in the activity of selected enzymes in the exposed fish and the effect prolonged till the end of recovery period. So these enzymes in the selected tissues can be considered as best biomarker to determine toxicity of even very low doses of the azo dye BV-1 in fish.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...




Antioxidant enzymes, Azo dye, Basic violet-1, Detoxification, Liver, L. rohita

Abdel-Moneim, A.M., Abou-Shabana, N.M., Khadre, S.E.M. and Abdel-Kader, H.H. (2008). Physiological and histopathological effects in Catfish (Clarias lazera) exposed to dyestuff and chemical wastewater. International Journal of Zoological Research, 4(4), 189-202. DOI: 10.3923/ijzr.2008.189.202
Amin, K.A., Hameid, II H.A. and Elsttar, A.H.A. (2010). Effect of food azo dyes Tartrazine and carmoisine on biochemical parameters related to renal, hepatic function and oxidative stress biomarkers in young male rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 48, 2994–2999. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2010.07.039.
APHA. (1998). American Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 20th Edition. American Publication of Health Association, Wahington, DC: 2005-2605.
Bainy, A.C.D., Saito, E., Carvalho, P.S.M. and Junqueira, V.B.C. (1996). Oxidative stress in gill, erythrocytes, liver and kidney of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) from a polluted site. Aquatic Toxicology, 34, 151-162. https://doi.org/10.1016/0166-445X(95)00036-4
Banat, I.M., Nigam, P., Singh D. and Marchant, R. (1996) Microbial decolorization of textile-dye containing effluents – a review. Bioresource Technology, 58, 217–227. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0960-8524(96)00113-7
Corbett, J.R. (1974). The biochemical mode of action of pesticides. New York: Academic press.
David, M., Patil, V.K., Chebbi, S.G., Marigoudar, S.R., Chitturagi, J.B. and Halappa, R. (2009). Gas-liquid chromatography for fenvalerate residue analysis: In vivo alterations in the acetylcholinesterase activity and acetylcholine in different tissues of the fish, Labeo rohita (Hamilton). Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods, 19(6-7), 410-415. doi: 10.1080/15376510903089565.
David, M., Ramesh, H., Patil, V.K., Marigoudar, S.R. and Chebbi, S.G. (2010). Sodium cyanide-induced modulations in the activities of some oxidative enzymes and metabolites in the fingerlings of Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus).Toxicology and Environmental Chemistry, 92(10), 1841-1849. DOI: 10.1080/02772248.2010.498374
Ellman, G. L., Courtney, K.D., Andres, V. and Featherstone, R.M. (1961). A new and rapid colorimetric determination of acetylcholinesterase activity. Biochemical Pharmacology, 7, 88-95. https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-2952(61)90145-9
Hassaan, M.A. and El Nemr, A. (2017). Health and Environmental Impacts of Dyes: Mini Review. American Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering, 1(3), 64-67.
Himri, I., Bellahcen, S., Souna, F., Belmekki, F., Aziz, M., Bnouham, M., Zoheir, J., Berkia, Z., Mekhfi, H. and Saalaoui, E. (2011). A 90 day oral toxicity study of tartrazine, a synthetic food dye, in wistar rats. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 3(3), 159-169.
Kaur, H., Kalotra, R., Walia, G.K. and Handa, D. (2013). Dyeing industry effluent induced behavioral and morphological changes in the fish, Cirrhinus mrigala. International Journal of Zoological Research, 3(3), 13-20.
Kaur, S. and Kaur, A. (2015). Variability in antioxidant/detoxification enzymes of Labeo rohita exposed to an azo dye, Acid black (AB). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C, 167, 108–116. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpc.2014.06.009.
King, T.E. (1967). Preparation of succinate dehydrogenase and reconstitution of succinate oxidase. In: Methods in Enzymology. (Eds. R.W. Estabrook and M.E. Pullman). Academic press, N.Y. 10, pp. 322-332. https://doi.org/10.1016/0076-6879(67)10061-X
Kumar, K., Dastidar, M.G. and Sreekrishnan, T.R. (2009). Effect of process parameters on aerobic decolourization of reactive Azo dye using mixed culture. International Journal of Biological, Biomolecular, Agricultural, Food and Biotechnological Engineering, 3(10), 525-528.
Li, Z.H., Zlabek, V., Velisek, J., Grabic, R., Machova, J. and Randak, T. (2010). Modulation of antioxidant defense system in brain of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after chronic carbamazepine treatment. Comparative Biochemistry Physiology Part C, 151, 137–141. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpc.2009.09.006.
Lowry, O.H., Rosebrough, N. J., Farr, A.L. and Randall, R.J. (1951). Protein measurement with folin phenol reagent. Journal of Biochemistry, 193, 265–275.
Malla Reddy, P., Philip, H.G. and Bashamohideen, M. (1992). Regulation of AChE system of freshwater fish, Cyprinus carpio under fenvalerate toxicity. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 48:18-22
Mansour, H.B., Ayed-Ajmi, Y., Mosrati, R., Corroler, D., Ghedira, K., Barillier, D. and Chekir-Ghedira, L. (2010). Acid violet 7 and its biodegradation products induce chromosome aberrations, lipid peroxidation, and cholinesterase inhibition in mouse bone marrow. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 17:1371-1378.
Morena, I., Pichardo, S., Jos, A., Gomez-Amores, L., Mate, A., Vazquez, C.M. and Camean, A.M. (2005). Antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation in liver and kidney of rats exposed to microcystin-LR administered intraperitoneally. Toxicon, 45, 395–402.
O’ Brien, R.D. (1967). Insecticides action and metabolism. New York: Academic press.
Regoli, F., Pellegrini, D., Winston, G.W., Gorbi, S., Giuliani, S., Virno-Lamberti, C. and Bompadre, S. (2002). Application of biomarkers for assessing the biological impact of dredged materials in the Mediterranean: the relationship between antioxidant responses and susceptibility to oxidative stress in the red mullet (Mullus barbatus). Marine Pollution Bulletin, 44, 912-922. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0025-326X(02)00120-0
Rutter, J., Winge, D.R. and Schiffman, J.D. (2010). Succinate dehydrogenase- assembly, regulation and role in human disease. Mitochondrion, 10, 393-401. doi: 10.1016/j.mito.2010.03.001.
Sekar, P., Hariprasad, S. and Deccaraman, M. (2008). Impact of Textile Dye Industry Effluent on the Neurosecretory Cells in Fresh Water Female Crab Spiralothelphusa hydrodroma (Herbst). Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 4(11), 1526-1533.
Tilak, K.S., Veeraiah, K. and Rao, D.K. (2005). Biochemical changes induced by Chlorpyrifos, an organophosphate compound in sublethal concentrations to the freshwater fish Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala. Journal of Environmental Biology, 26(2), 341-347.
Tonogai, Y., Ito, Y., Iwaida, M., Tati, M., Ose, Y. and Hori, M. (1979). Studies on the toxicity of coal-tar dyes II. The Journal of Toxicological Sciences, 4(3), 211-219.
Tonogai, Y., Ito, Y., Iwaida, M., Tati, M., Ose, Y. and Hori, M. (1980). Studies on the toxicity of coal-tar dyes III. The Journal of Toxicological Sciences, 5(1), 23-33.
Tripathi, G. and Shasmal, J. (2011). Concentration related responses of chlorpyriphos in antioxidant, anaerobic and protein synthesizing machinery of the freshwater fish, Heteropneustes fossilis. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 99, 215-220. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pestbp.2010.12.006
Uner, N., Oruc, E.O., Sevgiler, Y., Sahin, N., Durmaz, H. and Usta, D. (2006). Effects of diazinon on acetylcholinesterase activity and lipid peroxidation in the brain of Oreochromis niloticus. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 21, 241-245. doi: 10.1016/j.etap.2005.08.007.
Vander Kloot, G.W. (1956). Cholinesterase and sodium transport by frog muscle. Nature 178, 366. https://doi.org/10.1038/178366a0
Vander oost, R., Beyer, J. and Vermeulen, P.E. (2003). Fish bioaccumulation and biomarkers in enviormental risk assessment: a review. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 13, 57-149.
Vasanth, S., Ganesh, A., Vijayakumar, T.S., Karthikeyeni, S., Manimegalai, M. and Subramanian, P. (2012). Assessment of anthracene on hepatic and antioxidant enzyme activities in Labeo rohita (Hamilton, 1822). International Journal of Pharmacy and Life Science, 3(5), 1696-1704.
Wilkinson, J.H., Baron, D.N., Moss, D.W. and Walker, P.G. (1972). Standardization of clinical enzyme assays: a reference method for aspartate and alanine transaminase. Journal of Clinical Pathology, 25, 940-944.
Woo, S.P.S., Liu, W.H., Au, D.W.T., Anderson, D.M. and Wu, R.S.S. (2006). Antioxidant responses and lipid peroxidation in gills and erythrocytes of fish (Rhabdosargus sarba) upon exposure to Chattonella marina and hydrogen peroxide: implications on the cause of fish kills. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 336, 230–241.
Zaharia, C. and Suteu, D. (2012). Textile organic dyes – Characteristics, polluting effects and separation/elimination procedures from industrial effluents – A critical overview. In: Tomasz, P. (ed). Organic Pollutants Ten Years After the Stockholm Convention - Environmental and Analytical Update. pp. 55-86. InTech, Europe.
Zheng, J.L., Luo, Z., Chen, Q.L., Liu, X., Liu, C.X., Zhao, Y.H. and Gong, Y. (2011). Effect of waterborne zinc exposure on metal accumulation, enzymatic activities and histology of Synechogobius hasta. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 74:1864-1873.
Citation Format
How to Cite
Kaur, S., Kaur, K., & kaur, A. (2018). Responses of the antioxidant defences of Labeo rohita exposed to Basic violet-1 (BV-1). Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 10(4), 1248–1253. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v10i4.1911
More Citation Formats:
Research Articles

Most read articles by the same author(s)