We observed behavioural activity patterns, daily movements and reproductive ecology (birth rate, death rate, breeding seasons, mating) of urban rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in man-made environment after their reintroduction in Asola-Bhatti Wildlife Sanctuary, Delhi, India using instantaneous sampling or scan sampling method. The daily activity patterns of rhesus macaques inhabiting in the sanctuary were observed from 6:00 h to 18:00 hrs per day from March 2016 to June 2017. The percentage of each activity was estimated quantitatively and birth rate per female per troop in a year was calculated in total 21 troops of rhesus macaques. Macaques adopted different time slot for maximum utilization of food and space available and we estimated the percent time spent of each activity pattern and their variations in a particular geographic area. Daily average distance travelled was 1.89 km/day and it was restricted to the feeding platforms. Mortality was incredibly low (0.17) and high reproductive success was in females per troop. Number of females per troop was 4.48 on average, mean birth rate was calculated 2.20 per female per troop in a year, gestation length 160 days on average. Breeding seasons were April to June and late August to October, although there was no seasonal variation in daily activity pattern and movement ranges throughout the year in the sanctuary. Our study recommendation will help in reducing human-macaque conflicts in urban areas and will serve as a potential source of information of ecology, behaviour of urban rhesus macaques and their management.
Daily activity, Human-macaque conflict, Management, Rhesus macaque, Reproductive ecology
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