Thalli of three species of Plagiochasma, collected during different seasons from their natural habitats of Mandi region of Himachal Pradesh were evaluated for some biochemical parameters viz. total water soluble carbohydrates, proteins, free amino acids, total chlorophyll, carotenoid and the activities of amylases, invertase and protease. Highly significantly contents of carbohydrates (70.83±2.54 mg/g fw in P. appendiculatum, 21.26± 0.09 mg/g fw in P. articulatum and 52.75±2.95 mg/g fw in P. intermedium) and of chlorophyll (0.76±0.005 mg/g fw in P. appendiculatum, 0.69±0.005 mg/g fw in P. articulatum and 1.2±0.006 mg/g fw in P. intermedium ) were observed towards the end of the growing season (January-March period of collection), whereas the content of protein (23.46±0.14 mg/g fw in P. appendiculatum, 23.33±0.71 mg/g fw in P. articulatum and 22.99±0.27 mg/g fw in P. intermedium) was maximum during winter (October-December) and that of free amino acids (37.48±1.05 mg/g fw in P. appendiculatum, 70.9±0.91 mg/g fw in P. articulatum and 25.13±0.31 mg/g fw in P. intermedium) in the rainy season (July-September). On the other hand, the activities of enzymes that breakdown the carbohydrates into simple sugars were recorded least towards the end of the favourable period of their growth. The activity of protease was maximum in the rainy season (July-September) and minimum in the winter season (October-December). This study concluded that the seasonal changes in Plagiochasma induced alterations in the biochemical compounds and in the activities of related enzymes that may be responsible for the adaptation of these plants in their natural habitats.
Biochemical changes, Liverworts, Plagiochasma appendiculatum, P. articulatum, P. intermedium
Bakht, J., Khan, M. J., Shafi, M., Khan, M. A. and Sharif, M. (2012). Effect of salinity and ABA application on proline production and yield in wheat genotypes. Pak. J. Bot. 44: 873-878.
Basha, S. M. M. and Beevers, L. (1975). The development of proteolytic activity and protein degradation during the germination of Pisum sativum L. Planta. 124: 77-87.
Bernfeld, P. (1951). Amylases ? and ?. Methods in Enzymology, Academic Press, New York, pp 149-158.
Bischler, H. (1978). Plagiochasma Lehm. et Lindenb. II. Les taxa europeens et africains Plagiochasma Lehm. and Lindenb. II. European and African taxa]. Reve Bryologique Lichenologique. 44: 223-300.
Bischler, H. (1979). Plagiochasma Lehm. et Lindenb. III. Les taxad’Asie et oceanie. J. Hatt. Bot. Lab. 45: 25-79.
Bourdeau, P. F. (1959). Seasonal variations of the photosynthetic efficiency of evergreen conifers. Ecology. 40: 63-67.
Chimankar, O. P., Shriwas, R. and Tabhane, V. A. (2011). Intermolecular interaction studies in some amino acids with aqueous NaOH. J. Chem. Pharm. Res. 3: 587-596.
Devi, K., Kapila, S. and Rao, A. (2015). Seasonal variations in the photosynthetic pigments of three species of Marchantiaceae. Int. J. Adv. Pharm. Bio. Chem. 4: 713-718.
Diana, J. S. (1982). An experimental analysis of the metabolic rate and food utilization of northern pike. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 71A: 395-399.
Dionne, J., Castonguay, Y., Nadeau, P. and Desjardins, Y. (2001). Amino acid and protein changes during cold acclimation of green-type annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.) ecotypes. Crop Sci. 41: 1862-1870.
Dreier, W., Schnarrenberger, C. and Boerner, T. (1995). Light and stress-dependent enhancement of amylolytic activities in white and green barley leaves: beta-amylases are stress-induced proteins. J. Plant Physiol. 145: 342–348.
Ejaz, B., Sajid, Z. A. and Aftab, F. (2012). Effect of exogenous application of ascorbic acid on antioxidant enzyme activities, proline contents and growth parameters of Saccharum spp., hybrid cv. HSF-240 under salt stress. Turk. J. Biol. 36: 630-640.
Gerold, H. D. (1959). Seasonal variation of chloroplast pigments and nutrient elements in the needles of geographic races of Scitch Pine. Silvae Gernet. 8: 113-123.
Ghates, S. and Chapekar, S. B. (2000). Plagiochasma appendiculatum as a biotest for water quality assessment. Environ. Pollut. 108(2): 173-181.
Hamayun, M., Sohn, E. Y., Khan, S. A., Shinwari, Z. K., Khan, A. L. and Lee, I. J. (2010). Silicon alleviates the adverse effects of salinity and drought stress on growth and endogenous plant growth hormones of soybean (Glycine max L.). Pak. J. Bot. 42: 1713-1722.
Hughes, M. A. and Dunn, M. A. (1996). The molecular biology of plant acclimation to low temperature. J. Exp. Bot. 47: 291-305.
Humphreys, M. O. (1994). Variation in the carbohydrate and protein content of ryegrass: Potential for genetic manipulation. Breeding for quality: Proceeding of the 19th Eucarpia Fodder Crops Section Meeting, Brugge, Belgium, pp 165-172.
Kachroo, P. (1954). Morphology of rebouliaceae II. On species of Marria Corda, Asterella Baeuv. and Plagiochasma L. et L. J. Hatt. Bot. Lab. 12: 34-52.
Kapila, S. and Dhawan, A. (2000). Preliminary biochemical studies on some west Himalayan bryophytes. Pb. Univ. Res. Bull. 50: 107-113.
Kapila, S., Devi, K., Rao, A. and Mahajan, A. (2014). Seasonal variations in carbohydrate, protein, free amino acids and enzyme activities in three species of Marchantiaceae. Lindbergia. 37: 85-89.
Koc, E., Islek, C. and Ustun, A. S. (2010). Effect of cold on protein, proline, phenolic compounds and chlorophyll content of two pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) varieties. G.U. J. Sci. 23(1): 1-6.
Kulshrestha, S., Tyagi, P., Sindhi, V. and Yadavilli, K. S. (2013). Invertase and its applications – A brief review. J. Pharm. Res. 7(9): 792-797.
Kumar, K., Singh, K. K., Asthana, A. K. and Nath, V. (2000). Ethnotherapeutics of bryophyte Plagiochasma appendiculatum among the Gaddi Tribes of Kangra Valley, Himachal Pradesh, India. Pharm. Biol. 38: 353–356.
Lee, Y. P. and Takahashi, T. (1966). An improved colorimetric determination of amino acid with the use of ninhydrin. Anal. Biochem. 14: 71-77.
Lichtenthaler H. K. and Wellburn, A. R. (1983). Determination of total carotenoids and chlorophylls a and b of leaf extracts in different solvents. Biochem. Soc. Trans. 11: 591-592.
Linder, S. (1972). Seasonal variation of pigments in needles. A study of scots pine and Norway spruce grown under different nursery conditions. Stud. For. Suec. 100: 1-37.
Liu, M., Shen, X., Yin, W. and Lu, C. (2005). Functional analysis of cold-inducible cDNA clones in the Legume Ammopiptanthus mongolicus. CryoLetters. 26: 213-222.
Lowry, O. H., Rosebrough, N. J., Farr, A. L. and Rendall, R. J. (1951). Protein estimation with folin phenol reagent. J. Biol. Chem. 193: 265-275.
Martin, C. E. and Churchill, S. P. (1982). Chlorophyll concentrations and a/b ratios in mosses collected from exposed and shaded habitats in Kansas. J. Bryol. 12: 297–304.
Melick, D. R. and Seppelt, R. D. (1994). Seasonal investigation of soluble carbohydrate and pigment level in Antarctic bryophytes and lichens. Bryologist. 97: 13-19.
Mohapatra, S. S., Poole, R. J. and Dhindsa, R. S. (1987). Cold acclimation, freezing resistance and protein synthesis in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. cv. Saranac). J. Exp. Bot. 38: 1697-1703.
Muentz, K. (1977). The function of the pod for protein storage in seeds of Vicia faba L. 5 isoenzymes of ?-amylase during pod development of field beans. Phytochemistry. 16: 1491-1494.
Newell, E. A., Mulkey, S. S. and Wright, S. J. (2002). Seasonal patterns of carbohydrate storage in four tropical tree species. Oecologia. 131: 333-342.
Nielsen, T. H., Deiting, U. and Stitt. M. (1997). A beta-amylase in potato tubers is induced by storage at low temperature. Plant Physiol. 113: 503–510.
Parihar, N.S., Lal, B. and Katiyar, N. (1994). Hepaticae and Anthocerotae of India. A New Annotated Checklist Central Book Depot, Allahabad.
Senser, M., Schötz, F. and Beck, E. (1975). Seasonal changes in structure and function of spruce chloroplasts. Planta. 126: 1-10.
Shafi, M., Bakht, J., Khan, M. J., Khan, M. A. and Raziuddin. (2011). Role of abscisic acid and proline in salinity tolerance of wheat genotypes. Pak. J. Bot. 43: 1111-1118.
Singh, M., Govindarajan, R., Nath, V., Rawat, A. K. S. and Mehrotra. S. (2006). Antimicrobial, wound healing and antioxidant activity of Plagiochasma appendiculatum Lehm. et Lind. J. Ethnopharmacol. 107: 67–72.
Smirnoff, N. (1992). The carbohydrates of bryophytes in relation to desiccation tolerance. J. Bryol. 17: 185-191.
Sturm, A. (1999). Invertases. Primary structures, functions and roles in plant development and sucrose partitioning. Plant Physiol. 121: 1-8.
Sumner, J. B. (1935). A more specific reagent for the determination of sugar in urine. J. Biol. Chem. 69: 393-395.
Udar, R. and Chandra, S. (1960a). Enzymes of Hepaticae. I. A preliminary report. Current Sci. 29: 104-105.
Udar, R. and Chandra, S. (1960b). Enzymes of Hepaticae. II. On the enzymes in Riccia discolor L. et L. J. Hatt. Bot. Lab. 23: 85-92.
Yemm, E. W. and Willis, A. J. (1954). The estimation of carbohydrates in plant extracts by anthrone. Biochem. J. 57: 508-514.
Ziegler, P. (1999). Cereal beta-amylases. J. Cereal Sci. 29: 195–204.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
This work is licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) Â© Author (s)