An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of leaf, stem and root of Parthenium hysterophorus on the rate of seed germination (%) and seedling growth (cm) in Macrotyloma uniflorum. The different concentrations of root, stem and leaf extract used in the experiment were 15, 25, 50, 75 and 100%. The rate of seed germination, length of root and shoot and Seed Vigour Index (SVI) values were recorded. Data collected were analysed for Pearsons Correlation Coefficient, Tukey HSD (Honestly Significant Difference) and Post HOC Tests. It was recorded that SVI value decreased in different concentrations of leaf, stem and root from 23.53 to 100%, 3.33 to 26.21% and 32.44 to 100%, respectively. This indicated that leaf and root extracts were more phytotoxic to M.uniflorum than the stem extract of P.hysterophorus. The rate of seed germination and length of shoot differed significantly in different concentrations than the length of root, as indicated by Post HOC Test. The effect of plant parts i.e. root, stem and leaf; treatments i.e. different concentrations and interaction of plant parts and treatments were significantly differed at p < 0.000. Generally the impacts of different parts were also significantly different at p < 0.000. Thus, this study indicated that the leaf and root extracts are more toxic to M. uniflorum than the stem extract; and the rate of seed germination and shoot length were more affected than the root length. The seed germination and shoot growth in M. uniflorum are affected by leaf and root extracts of Parthenium.
Phytotoxic effect, , Parthenium hysterophorus, Macrotyloma uniflorum, Seed Vigour Index
Amin, A., Rashid, H., Khan, M.A. and Khan, M.I. (2007). Allelopathic effect of Parthenium hysterophorus (L.) extracts on germination and growth of weeds. Proceedings of the 21th Asian Pacific Weed Science Society Conference. 2-6 Oct. Colombo, 14-18.
Anwar, T., Khalid, S., Saeed, M., Mazhar, R., Qureshi, H. and Rashid, M. (2016). Allelopathic interference of leaf powder and aqueous extracts of hostile weed: Parthenium hysterophorus (Asteraceae). Sci. Int, 4: 86-93.
Bajwa, R., Akhtar, J. and Javaid, A. (2003). Role of VAM in alleviating allelopathic stress of Parthenium hysterophorus on maize (Zea mays L.), Mycopath, 1(1):15-30.
Bajwa, R., Shafique, S., Shafique, S. and Javaid, A. (2004). Effect of foliar spray of aqueous extract of Parthenium hysterophorus on growth of sunflower. Int. J. Agri. Bio. 3:474-478.
Batish, D.R., Singh, H.P., Kohli, R.K. and Kaur, S. (2001). Crop allelopathy and its role in ecological agriculture: Allelopathy in Agroecosystems. Binghamton, N.Y.: Haworth Press.
Batish, D.R., Singh, H.P., Saxena, D.B., Kohli, R.K. and Arora, V. (2002 ). Effect of Parthenin-a sesquiterpene lactone from Parthenium hysterophorus, on early growth and physiology of Ageratum conizoides. J. Chem. Eco. 28: 2169-2179.
Barnes, J., Anderson, l.A. and Phillipson, J.D. (2007). Herbal Medicines London, U.K.; Published by the Pharmaceutical Press, RPS Publishing.
Belz, R.G., Reinhardt, C.F., Foxcroft, L.C. and Hurle, K. (2007). Residue allelopathy in Parthenium hysterophorus L.-Does parthenin play a leading role? Crop Prot. 26: 237-245.
Bhadoria, P.B.S. (2011). Allelopathy; A natural way towards weed management. Ame. J. Exp. Agri, 1(1): 7 – 20.
Bhatt, B.P., Chauhan, D.S. and Todaria, N.P. (1994). Effects of weed leachates on germination and radicle extension of some food crops. Ind. J. Plan. Phy. 37: 177-179.
Bhowmik, P.C., Sarkar, D. and Yaduraju, N.T. (2007). The status of Parthenium hysterophorus and its potential management. Ecop. 14: 1 – 17.
Biswas, O. (2010). Allelopathic effects of plant debris of Parthenium weed on seed germination, growth and development of field crops. M.S. Thesis, Submitted to the Department of Agronomy, BAU.
Choesin, D.N. and Boerner, R.E.J. (1991). Allylisothiocyanate release and the allelopathic potential of Brassica napus. Amer. J. Bot. 78:1083-1090.
Clarence, J.M., Mokiti, T.T. and Patrick, A.N. (2013). Allelopathic effect of Parthenium hysterophorus on seed germination, seedling growth, fresh and dry mass production of Alysicarpus glumaceus and Chloris gayana. Amer. J. Res. Comm. 1(11): 190-205.
Demissie, A.G., Ashenafi, A., Arega, A., Etenash U., Kebeda A. and Tigist, A. (2013). Effect of Parthenium hysterophorus L. on germination and elongation of onion (Allium cepa) and Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Res. J. Chem. & Env. Sci. 1(2): 17 – 21
Devi, O.l. and Dutta, B.K. (2012). Allelopathic effect of the aqueous extract of Parthenium hysterophorus and Chromolaena odorata on the seed germination and seedling vigour of Zea mays L. in vitro. App. J. Pl. Sci. 5(4):110-113.
Devi, Y.N., Dutta, B.K. Sagolshemcha, R. and Singh, N.I. (2014). Allelopathic effect of Parthenium hysterophorus L. on growth and productivity of Zea mays L. and its phytochemical screening. Int. J. Curr. Micro. & App. Sci. 3(7): 837-846.
Dogra, K. S. and Sood, S. K. (2012). Phytotoxicity of Parthenium hysterophorus residues towards growth of three native plant species (Acacia catechu Wild, Achyranthes aspera L. and Cassia tora L.) in Himachal Pradesh, India. Int. J. Pl. Phy. & Biochem. 4(5): 105 – 109
Gnanavel, I. and Natarajan, S.K. (2013). Parthenium hysterophorus L.: A major threat to natural and agro eco-system in India. Sci. Int. 1: 186-193.
Guzman, C.D. (1988). Allelopathic effects of seven weed species in pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) under green house conditions. J. Agri. 72:491-493.
Jarvis, B.B., Pena, N.B., Rao, M.M., Comezoglu, R.S., Comezoglu, T.F., and Mandeva, N.B. (1985). Allelopathic agents for Parthenium hysterophorus and Baccharis megapotamica. In: The chemistry of allelopathy, biochemical interactions among the plants. Ame. Chem. Soci.149-159.
Karim, S. M. R. and Forzwa. R. (2010). Allelopathic effects of Parthenium weed on the seed germination and seedling growth of field crops. Abstract, Annual Botanical conference held at Chittagong University, Bangladesh during 9 to 10 January, 2010, pp: 38– 39
Kathiresan, R.M., Gnanavel, I., Anbhazhagan, R., Padmaria, S.P., Vijayalakshmi, N.K., and Arulchezhian, M.P. (2005). Ecology and control of Parthenium invasion in command area. In: Proceedings of Second International Conference on Parthenium Management. 5-7 Dec. Bangalore, India. 77-80.
Kaur, M., Aggarwal, N.K., Kumar, V. and Dhiman, R. (2014). Effects and management of Parthenium hysterophorus: A weed of global significance. Inter. Schol. Res. Noti. 1-12.
Khan, N., Hashmatullah, K., Naveed, Z.H. and Khan, S.A. (2012). Assessment of allelopathic effects of Parthenium (Parthenium hysterophorus L.) plant parts on seed germination and seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars. Pakis. J. W. Sci. Res. 18(1):39-50.
Khalaj, M.A., Amiri, M. and Azimi, M.H. (2013). Allelopathy; Physiological and sustainable agriculture impact aspects. Int. J. Agro. & Pl. Prot, 415: 950 – 962.
Kohli, R.K., Kumari, A. and Saxena, D.B. (1985). Auto-and teletoxicity of Parthenium hysterophorus L. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Brno [Czechoslovakia] 33: 253-263.
Kumar, S. (2012). Current Spread, Impact and Management of Parthenium weed in India. Int. Par. N. 5: 1-6.
Kumar, S. (2015). Allelopathic effects of aqueous extract of leaves of Abutilon indicum (L.) Sweet and Parthenium hysterophorus L. on seed germination and seedling growth of barley. Int. J. Phar. & Bio. Sci.6(4).1117-1120.
Kumar, A., Kumar, P., Ajayan, M.P. and John, G. (2008). Silver nanoparticle embedded antimicrobial paints based on vegetable oil. Nat. Mat. 7: 236-241.
Kumar, M. and Kumar, S. (2010). Effect of Parthenium hysterophorus ash on growth and biomass of Phaseolous mungo. Aca. Are. 2(1): 98-102.
Maharajan, S., Shrestha, B. B. and Pramod, K. J. (2007): Allelopathic effects of aqueous extract of leaves of Parthenium hysterophorus L. on seed germination and seedling growth of some cultivated and wild herbaceous species. Sci. Wor. 5(5): 234 – 243.
Marwat, S.K., Rehman F. and Khan IU. (2015). Ethnobotanical importance and phytochemical constituents of Parthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L.) – A Review. Pl. Sci. Tod. 2(2): 77-81.
Mersie, W. and Singh, M. (1988). Effect of phenolic acids and ragweed Parthenium (Parthenium hysterophorus) extract on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) growth and nutrients and chlorophyll content. W. Sci. 36: 278-281.
McGinley, M. and Duffy, J.M. (2011). “Invasive species.” In: Encyclopedia of Earth, Cutler J. Leveland (Ed.) Washington, D.C.: Environmental Information Coalition, National Council for Science and the Environment.
Netsere, A. (2015). Allelopathic effect of aqueous extracts of an invasive alien weed Parthenium hysterophorus L. on maize and sorghum seed germination and seedling growth. J. Bio, Agri. Hel. 5(1): 120-124.
Netsere, A. and Mendesil, E. (2011). Allelopathic effect of Parthenium hysterophorus L. aqueous extract on soybean (Glycine max L.) and haricot bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seed germination, shoot and root growth and dry matter production. J. App. Bot. & F. Qua. 84: 219 – 222
Nguyen, T., Bajwa, A.A., Navie, S., O’Dannell, C and Adkins, S. (2017). Parthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus) and climate change: The effect of CO2 concentration, temperature and water deficit on growth and reproduction of two biotypes. Env. Sci. & Poll. Res., 24(11): 10727-10739.
Oudhia, P. (1998). Parthenium: A curse for the biodiversity of Chhattisgarh plain. In: An Impact on Environment [Abstract] In: National Research Seminar on Bio-chemical Changes on 30-31 July. Mandlaa (M.P.). 26.
Oudhia, P., Kohli, S.S. and Tripathi, R.S. (1997). Allelopathic effect of white top (Parthenium hysterophorus L.) on chickpea. Leg. Res.20 (2):117-120.
Oudhia, P. and Tripathi, R.S. (1998). Allelopathic effects of Parthenium hysterophorus L., on kodo, mustard and problematic weeds. 136-139. In: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Parthenium Management, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, India, 6-8,October, 1997.
Pandey, D. K. (1994). Inhibition of salvinia (Salvinia molesta Mitchell) by Parthenium (Parthenium hysterophorus L.) 2. Relative effect of flower, leaf, stem and root residue on Salvinia and paddy. J. Che. Eco. 20:3123 – 3131
Pandey, D.K. (1996). Phytotoxicity of Sesquiterpene lactone parthenin on aquatic weeds. J. Chem. Ecol, 22: 151-160.
Pareek, A., Suthar, M., Rathore, G.S. and Bansal, V. (2011). Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L.): A systematic review. Pharm. Rev. 5: 103-110.
Patil, T. M. and Hedge, B. A. (1988). Isolation and purification of a sesquiterpene lactone from the leaves of Parthenium hysterophorus L. its allelopathic and cytotoxic effects. Curr. Sci. 57: 1178 - 1181.
Parsons, W.T. and Cuthbertson, E.G. (2001). Noxious Weeds of Australia CSIRO Publishing.
Peters, E.J. and Zam, A.H.B.M. (1981). Allelopathic effects of trace fescus genotypes. Agro. J. 73:56-59.
Picman, J. and Picman, A.K. (1984). Autotoxicity in Parthenium hysterophorus and its possible role in control of germination. Biochem. Syst. & Eco. 12: 287-292.
Purohit, S. and Pandya, N. (2013). Allelopathic activity of Ocimum sanctum L. and Tephrosia purpurea (L.)Pers. leaf extracts on few common legumes and weeds. Int. J. Res. P. Sci. 3(1):5-9.
Rai, P.K. (2013). Plant Invasion Ecology: Impacts and Sustainable Management. Nova Science Publisher, New York, USA.
Rai, P.K. (2015). What makes the plant invasion possible? Paradigm of invasion mechanisms, theories and attributes. Env. Skept. & Cri. 4(2): 36-66.
Rajendiran, K. (2005). Simple and rapid squash schedule for the root tips of Helianthus annus to determine the environmental clastogens. J. Ecotoxi. & Env. Monit. 15: 291-295.
Rajiv, P., Narendhran, S. and Subhash, K.M. (2013). Parthenium hysterophorus L. compost: Assessment of its physical properties and allelopathic effect on germination and growth of Arachis hypogaea L. Int. Res. J. Env. Sci. 2(2): 1-5.
Rao, R.S. (1956): Parthenium hysterophorus Linn. A new record. Ind. J. Bom. N. His. Soc. 54:218 – 220.
Ranasinghe, R.L.D.S. and Ediriweera, E.R.H.S.S. (2017). Medicinal and nutritional values of Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) verdc (Kulattha): A conceptual study. Glo. J. Pha. & Pharm. Sci. 1(2): 1-10.
Rashid, H., Khan, M. A., Amin, A., Nawab, K., Hussain, N. and Bhowmik, P. K. (2008). Effect of Parthenium hysterophorus L. root extracts on seed germination and growth of maize and barley. The Ame. J. Pl. Sci. Biotech. 51-55.
Sarita, K., Abhay, P.S., Gokul, N., Sahil, B., Anubha, S., Naim, W. and Radhika, W. (2011). Impact of Parthenium hysterophorus leaf extracts on the fecundity, fertility and behavioural response of Aedes aegypti L. Parasi. Res.108.2011.853-859.
Sharma, G.L. and Bhutani, K.K. (1988). Plant based antiamoebic drugs. Part 2. Amoebicidal activity of Parthenin isolated from Parthenium hysterophorus. Pl. Medi. 54: 20-22.
Shikha, R. and Jha, A.K. (2016a). Evaluation of effect of leaf extract of Parthenium hysterophorus L. on seed germination, seedling growth and fresh weight of Phaseolous mungo. Am. J. Res. Comm. 4(2):86-103.
Shikha, R. and Jha, A.K. (2016b). Allelopathic effect of leaf extract of Parthenium hysterophorus L. on seed germination and growth of Cicer aeritinum L. Int. J. Sci. Res. 5(3):652-655.
Shikha, R. and Jha, A.K. (2016c). Allelopathic activity of Parthenium hysterophorus L. leaf extract on Pisum sativum. Int. J. Rec. Sci. Res. 7(3). 9461-9466.
Shikha, R. and Jha, A.K. (2016d). Leaf extract of Parthenium hysterophorus L. affects the growth of Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. (Quest Journals) J. Res. Agri & Ani Sci. 4(6): 01-07.
Shikha, R. and Jha, A.K. (2017a). Allelopathic influence of aqueous stem extract of Parthenium on growth of maize. Ind. J. W. Sci. 49(2): 1-2.
Shikha, R. and Jha, A.K. (2017b). Phytotoxic effects of aqueous stem extract of Parthenium hysterophorus L. on seed germination and seedling growth on Pisum sativum. Poll. Res. 36(4): 153-159.
Shikha, R. and Jha, A.K. (2018 a). Evaluation of phytotoxicity levels of Parthenium hysterophorus L. on seed germination and seedling growth of Brassica nigra. Int. J. Bas. App. Res., 8(8): 399-406.
Shikha, R. and Jha, A.K. (2018 b). Evaluation of phytotoxicity levels of Parthenium hysterophorus on Triticum aestivum, Int. J. Cr. Res. Th., 1404-1408.
Singh, S.P. and Sangeeta. (1991). Allelopathic potential of Parthenium hysterophorus L. J. Agro. & Crop. Sci. 167: 201-206.
Singh, N.B. and Thapar, R. (2003). Allelopathic influence of Cannabis sativa on growth and metabolism of Parthenium hysterophorus. Allelo. J.,12(1): 61-70.
Singh, H.P., Batish, D.R., Setia, N and Kohli, R.K. (2005). Herbicidal activity of volatile oils from Eucalyptus citriodora against Parthenium hysterophorus. Anl. App. Bio, 146: 89-94.
Singh, R., Chaurasia, S., Gupta, A.D. and Soni, P. (2014). Studies on effect of Parthenium hysterophorus plants extract on germination and growth in certain pulses. Scholarly J. Agri. Sci. 4(4): 235-239.
Sorecha, E.M. and Bayissa, B. (2017). Allelopathic effect of Parthenium hysterophorus L. on germination and growth of peanut and soybean in Ethiopia. Adv. Crop. Sci. Tech. 5(3): 1-4.
Srivastava, J.N., Shukla, J.P. and Srivastava, R.C. (1985). Effect of Parthenium hysterophorus Linn. extract on the seed germination and seedling growth of barley, pea and wheat. Acta Bot. Indi, 13: 194-197.
Tafera, T. (2002): Allelopathic effect of Parthenium hysterophorus extracts on seed germination and seedling growth of Eragrostis tef. J. Agro. Cr. Sci. 188: 306 – 310.
Tamado, T. (2000). Weed flora in arable fields of eastern Ethiopia with emphasis on the occurrence of Parthenium hysterophorus. Int. J. W. Sci. 6: 8507-603.
Tamado, T., Ohlander, L. and Milberg, P. (2002). Interference by the weed Parthenium hysterophorus L. with grain sorghum: Influence of weed density and duration of competition. Int. J. Pes. Manag.,48:183- 188
Upadhyay, S.K., Ahmad, M. and Singh, A. (2013). Ecological impacts of weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L.) invasion in saline soil. Int. J. Sci. & Res. Publ. 3(4): 1-4.
Veena, B., Kushwaha and Maurya, S. (2012). Biological utilities of Parthenium hysterophorus. J. App. & Nat. Sci. 4(1): 137-143.
Wakjira, M. (2009): Allelopathic effect of Parthenium hysterophorus L. on onion germination and growth. Allelo. J. 24:351 – 362.
Wakjira, M., Berecha, G. and Bulti, B. (2005): Allelopathic effect of Parthenium hysterophorus extracts on seed germination and seedling growth of lettuce. Tro. Sci. 45: 159 – 162.
Wakjira, M., Berecha, G. and Tulu, S. (2009). Allelopathic effects of an invasive alien weed Parthenium hysterophorus L. compost on lettuce germination and growth. Afri. J. Agri. Res. 4(11): 1325-1330.
Zhou, J., Xie, G. and Yan, X. (2011). Encyclopedia of traditional chinese medicines – molecular structures, pharmacological activities, natural sources and applications. Vol. 3: Isolated Compounds H-M, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
This work is licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) Â© Author (s)