Biological communities reflect overall ecological integrity (i.e. chemical, physical and biological integrity). Since the diatom species exhibit variation in tolerances to physical and chemical change in water, they are excellent indicators changes in their environment. Based on the dominant categories for each characteristic, the ecological state of the stream can be determined. This study evaluates the ecological state of the streams in Doon Valley. The diatom samples collected at regular monthly intervals from the twelve streams located in the eastern and western Doon were treated with acid-peroxide and mounted in Naphrax for species count at x1500. About 250-300 valves of diatom species were counted and Van Dam ecologic values were computed by OMNIDIA ver. 5.3. pH was alkaliphilous (4), salinity - fresh brackish (2) and oxygenation - continuously high (1) for most of the streams. Saprobity and trophic status was largely Î²-mesosaprobous (2) and eutraphentic (5), respectively. The Leclercq index also shows non-existent (<10%) to low (10-20%) organic pollution, degradation (IDSE=3.5-3.0) and moderate anthropogenic eutrophication (20.1-45%) in most of the streams attributed to urbanization stress (62 MLD sewage). The water quality based on indices; IBD (Indice biologique diatomÃ¨es), IPS (Indice de polluo-sensibilite) and TDI (Trophic Diatom Index) showed the moderate water quality in the streams of the Valley. Like EU Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC (WFD) India should also have the objective to ensure ecosystem integrity through bio-assessment and not just mere pollution control.
Alkaliphilous, Degradation, Anthropogenic eutrophication, Indices, Saprobity
AntÃ³n-Garrido, B., Romo, S. and Villena, M. J. (2013). Diatom species composition and indices for determining the ecological status of coastal Mediterranean Spanish lakes. Anales del JardÃn BotÃ¡nico de Madrid, 70(2): 122-135.
Bere, T. and Tundisi, J.G. (2010).Biological monitoring of lotic ecosystems: the role of diatoms. Brazilian of Journal Biol., 70 (3): 493-502.
Cemagre, F. (1982). Etude des mÃ©thodes biologiques d'apprÃ©ciation quantitative d e la qualitÃ© des eaux. Rapport Q.E. Lyon - Agence de l'Eau RhÃ´ne-MÃ©diterranÃ©e-Corse, 218 p.
Denys, L. (1991). A check-list of the diatoms in the Holocene deposits of the Western Belgian coastal plain with a survey of their apparent ecological requirements. I - Introduction, ecological code and complÃ¨te list. Professiona l paper. MinistÃ¨r edes Affaires Economiques, Service GÃ©ologique de Belgique, 41 p.
Dixit, S.S., P. Smol, J.C. Kingston and D.F.Char1es (1992). Diatoms as powerful indicators of environmental change Env. Sc. kchnol, 26:23-33.
Eekhout, S., J.M. King and Wackernagel, A. (1997). Classification of South African rivers. Vol 1. Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Pretoria.
Hakansson, S. (1993). Numerical methodsfor the inference of pH variations in mesotrophic and eutrophic lakes in Southern Sweden - A progress report. Diatom Res., 8: 349-370.
Hofmann, G. (1994). Aufwuchs-Diatomeen in Seen and ihre Eignung als Indikatoren der Trophie. Bibliotheca Diatomologica 30: 1â€“241.
JNNURM (2007). City development plan: Dehradun revised. Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission GHK International, UK. pp. 1-211.
Kelly, M.G., Penny, C.J., Whitton, B.A. (1995). Comparative performance of benthic diatom indices used to assess river quality. Hydrobiologia, 302, 179-188.
Lange-Bertalot, H. (1979). Pollution tolerance of diatoms as a criterion for water quality estimation. Nova Hedwigia.,64: 285â€“303.
Lecointe, C., M. Coste and J. Prygiel 1993. "Omnidia": software for taxonomy, calculation of diatom indices and inventories management. In (ed.), H. van Dam Twelfth International Diatom Symposium. Hydrobiologia 269/270: 509-513.
Lenoir, A., Coste, M. (1994). Estimation de la qualitÃ© des eaux du bassin Rhin-Meuse Ã l'aide des communautÃ©s de diatomÃ©es benthiques. Agence de l'Eau Rhin-Meuse/Cemagref Bordeaux, 169 p.
Lobo, E., A., Bes, D., Tudesque, L. and Ector L. (2004). Water quality assessment of the Pardinhoriver, RS, Brazil, using epilithic diatom assemblages and faecal coliforms as biological indicators. Vie Milieu. 54 (2-3): 115-125.
Lobo, E., A., Katoh, K. and Aruga, Y. (1995).Response of epilithic diatom assemblages to water pollution in rivers in the Tokyo Metropolitan area, Japan,Freshwater water Biol. 34: 191â€“204.
Lowe, R. L. (1974). Environmental requirements and pollution tolerance of freshwater diatoms.US Environmental Protection Agency, EPA-670/4-74-007, 340.
Mahadev, J.,Shivakumar, K. V., Nagarathana, M., Ranganatha, A. D.(2016). Diatoms in detection of organic pollution and anthropogenic eutrophication in a polluted lake of Mysore, International J. of Science Technology & Engineering, 2 (9): 366-368.
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005). Ecosystems and human well-being: synthesis. Washington, DC: Island Press. ISBN 1-59726-040-1
Murulidhar, V.N. and Murthy Y. V.N. (2014). Distribution and ecology of diatom communities in four lakes using Lange-Bertalot method, International J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci. 3(4): 539-548.
Nautiyal, P. and Mishra, A. S. (2013).Epilithic diatom assemblages in a mountain stream of the lesser Himalaya (India): Longitudinal patterns. Int. J. Ecology Environmental Science,39(3): 171â€“185.
Nautiyal, P., Mishra, A. S. and Verma, J. (2015).The health of benthic diatom assemblages in lower stretch of a lesser Himalayan glacier-fed river, Mandakini, J. Earth Syst. Science,124: 383â€“394.
Nautiyal, P., Nautiyal, R. and Verma, J. (2007). Ecological state of the diatom assemblages as indicators and water quality of Mandakini basin, Garhwal region (Lesser Himalayanstreams); In: Proceedings National Symposium on Limnology (eds) Venkatramani B, Puranik V D, Apte S K, Gour H N, Sharma S K, Sharma L L, Durve Y S, Gupta H C L, Verma P C and Sharma B K, February 19â€“21 200: Board of Research in Nuclear Sciences, Department of Atomic Energy, Mumbai, pp 284â€“287.
Nautiyal, R. (2014). Diatom communities in freshwater ecosystem of the Doon valley. Proceeding of the international Symposium on river biodiversity: Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna river system. pp. 293-335.
Nogal, T., Stanek-Tarkowska, J., PajÄ…czek, A., Peszek, L. and Kochman, N. (2013).Ecological characterization of diatom communities in the WisÅ‚okriver with application of their indicatory role to the evaluation of water quality,J. of Ecological Eng. 14 (4): 18â€“27.
Prygiel, J., Whitton, B. A. and Bukowska, J. (eds) (1999). Use of algae for monitoring rivers; III Agence de Leau, Artois.
Sarode, P.T. and Kamat, N.D. (1984).Fresh Water Diatoms of Maharashtra.338 pp. SaikripaPrakashan, Aurangabad, India.
Solak, C, N. and Acs, E. (2011). Water quality monitoring in European and Turkish rivers using diatoms,Turkish J. of Fishery and Aq. Science,11: 329-337.
Srivastava, P., Grover, S., Verma, J. and Khan, A.S. (2017). Applicability and efficacy of diatom indices in water quality evaluation of the Chambal River in Central India. Environmental Science and Pollution Research DOI 10.1007/s11356-017-0166-0.
Tiwari, K. and Khanduri, K. (2011). Land Use / Land cover change detection in Doon valley (Dehradun Tehsil), Uttarakhand: using GIS & Remote Sensing Technique. Int. J. of Geomatics and Geosc., 2(1): 34-41.
Van Dam, H., Martens, A. and Sinkeldam, J. (1994). A coded checklist and ecological indicator Values of freshwater diatoms from the Netherlands. NetherÂ¬lands J. Aquatic Ecol., 28: 117â€“133.
Venkatachalapathy, R. and Karthikeyan P. (2012). Environmental impact assessment of Cauvery river with diatoms at Bhavani Tamil Nadu India, Int. J. of Geology, Earth and Env.Science,2(3): 36-42.
Venkatachalapathy, R. Nanthakumar, G. and Karthikeyan, P. (2014). Study of Diatoms and assessment of water quality in Yercaud Lake, Salem District, Tamil Nadu, South India, Gondwana Geological Magazine.Spl., 15: 13-16.
Watanabe, T., Asai, K., Houki, A., Tanaka, S. and Hizuka, T. (1986). Saprophilous and eurysaprobic diatom taxa to organic water pollution and diatom assemblage index (DAIPO), Diatom, 2: 23â€“73.
Winston, Y., Rita, E., Cestti, J. and Young, L. (2015). Toward Integrated Water Resources Management in Armenia. Inernational bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank, 1818 H streat NW, Washington, DC 20433.
Wu, J.T. and Kow, L.T. (2002). Applicability of a generic index for diatom assemblages to monitor pollution in the tropical river Tsanwun, Taiwan. J of Applied Phyco., 14: 63-69.
Census of India (2011). www.census 2011 co.in Assessed on 12 October 2016
This work is licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) Â© Author (s)