At present, a large amount of water required for paper production and various chemicals has been identified in effluents, which is produced at different steps of paper making in paper mills. The pulp and paper industry is typically related to pollution difficulties related to high biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), colour, suspended solids, lignin and chlorinated compounds. Several studies have been made on eliminate these difficulties of pulp and paper effluents, the problem still continues. Although the physical and chemical methods are on the track of treatment, they are not on par with biological treatment because of cost ineffectiveness and residual effects. The biological treatment is known to be effective in reducing the organic load and toxic effects of paper mill effluents. Some microorganisms including bacteria and fungi have been involved in degrading the chemicals present in pulp and paper mill effluent. This article is an overview of the attempts made by several researchers worldwide to use biotechnological methods for degradation of the toxic compounds present in pulp and paper mill effluents by using fungi, bacteria, algae and enzymes. The current study clearly shows that application of native dominant bacterial and fungal isolates may be used forthe treatment of large pulp and paper mills effluents.
Algae, Bacteria, Effluent, Enzymes, Fungi, Pulp and paper mill
Achoka, J. D. (2002). The efficiency of oxidation ponds at the kraft pulp and paper mill at Webuye in Kenya. Water Res., 36: 1203-1212.
Aftab, U., Khan, M.R.,Mahfooz,M. Ali,M., Aslam S.H.and Rehman, A. (2011). Decolourization and degradation of textile Azo dyes by Corynebacterium sp. Isolated from industrial effluent. Pak. J. Zool., 43: 1-8.
Alexander M. (1981). Biodegradation of chemicals of environment concern. Science 211:132–138.
Ali, M. and Sreekrishnan, T.R. (2001). Aquatic toxicity from pulp and paper mill effluents: A review. Adv. Environ. Res., 5: 175-196.
Atkins, S.D. and Clark, I.M. (2004). Fungal molecular diagnostics: A mini review. J. Applied Genet., 45: 3-15.
Atlas, R. M. and Bartha R. (2003). In microbial ecology: Fundamentals and applications. 4th edition. Benjamin and cummings science publishing, Callifornia
Badar S. and Farooki I. H. (2012). Pulp and paper industry- Manufacturing process, wastewater generation and treatment. In: Malik A., Grohmann E. (eds) Environmental protection strategies for sustainable development. Strategies for sustainability. Springer, Dordrecht
Bajpai, P., Mehna, A., Bajpai, P. K. (1993). Decolorization of kraft bleach plant effluent with the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor. Process Biochem., 28: 377–384.
Chakar, F.S. and Ragauskas, A.J. (2004). Review of current and future softwood Kraft lignin processchemistry. Ind. Crops Prod., 20: 131-141.
Chandra, R. and Bharagava, R.N. (2013). Bacterial degradation of synthetic and kraft lignin byaxenic and mixed culture and their metabolic products. J. Environ. Biol., 34: 991-999.
Chandra, R. and Singh, R. (2012). Decolourisation and detoxification of rayon grade pulp paper mill effluent by mixed bacterial culture isolated from pulp paper mill effluent polluted site. Biochem. Eng. J., 61: 49-58.
Chandra, R., Abhishek, A. and Sankhwar, M. (2011). Bacterial decolorization and detoxification of black liquor from rayon grade pulp manufacturing paper industry and detection of their metabolic products. Bioresour. Technol., 102: 6429-6436.
Chandra, R., Raj, A., Purohit, H.J. and Kapley, A. (2007). Characterisation and optimisation of three potential aerobic bacterial strains for kraft lignin degradation from pulp paper waste. Chemosphere, 67: 839-846.
Chandra, R., Singh, R. and Yadav, S. (2012). Effect of bacterial inoculum ratio in mixed culture for decolourization and detoxification of pulp paper mill effluent. J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol., 87: 436-444.
Dashtban, M., Schraft, H., Syed, T.A. and Qin,W. (2010). Fungal biodegradation and enzymatic modification of lignin. Int. J. Biochem. Mol. Biol., 1: 36-50.
Demir, G., Ozcan, H.K., Tufekci, N. and Borat, M. (2007). Decolorization of remazol yellow RR Gran by white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. J. Environ. Biol., 28: 813-817.
Dey, S., Choudhury, M.D. and Das, S. (2013). A review on toxicity of paper mill effluent on fish. Bull. Environ. Pharmacol. Life Sci., 2: 17-23.
Diez, M.C., Mora, M.L. and Videla, S. (1999). Adsorption of phenolic compounds and color from bleached Kraft mill effluent using allophanic compounds. Water Res., 33: 125-130.
D'Souza, D.T., Tiwari, R., Sah, A.K. and Raghukumar, C. (2006). Enhanced production of laccase by a marine fungus during treatment of colored effluents and synthetic dyes. Enzyme Microb. Technol., 38: 504-511.
Gao, J., Xu,G., Qian, H., Liu, P., Zhao, P. and Hu, Y. (2013). Effects of nano-TiO2 on photosynthetic characteristics of Ulmus elongate seedlings. Environ. Pollut., 176: 63-70.
Gao, W.J.J., Lin, H.J,. Leung, K.T. and Liao, B.Q. (2010). Influence of elevated pH shocks on theperformance of a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor. Process Biochem., 45: 1279-1287.
Gomaa, O.M., Linz, J.E. and Reddy, C.A. (2008). Decolorization of Victoria blue by the white rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 24: 2349-2356.
Hanafy, A.A., Elsalam, H.E. and Hafez, E.E. (2007). Fingerprinting for the lignin degrading bacteria from the soil. J. Applied Sci. Res., 3: 470-475.
Hao, O.J., Kim, H. and Chiang, P.C. (2000). Decolorization of wastewater. Crit. Rev. Environ. Sci.Technol., 30: 449-505.
Hawkins, S.A., Billiard, S.M., Tabash, S.P., Brown, R.S. and Hodson, P.V. (2002). Altering cytochrome p4501a activity affects polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolism and toxicity in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 21: 1845-1853.
Hossain, K. and Rao, A.R. (2014). Environmental change and it's affect. Eur. J. Sustain. Dev., 3: 89-96.
Iyovo, G.D., Du, G. and Chen, J. (2010). Sustainable bioenergy bioprocessing: Biomethane production, digestate as biofertilizer and as supplemental feed in algae cultivation to promote algae biofuel commercialization. J. Microb. Biochem. Technol., 2: 100-106.
Kamali, M. and Khodaparast, Z. (2015). Review on recent developments on pulp and paper mill wastewater treatment. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf., 114: 326-342.
Karrasch, B., Parra, O., Cid, H., Mehrens, M., Pacheo, P., Urrutia, R., Valdovinos, C. andZaror C. (2006). Effects of pulp and paper Mill effluents on the microplankton and microbial self-purification capabilities of the Biobio river. Chile. Sci Total Environ 359:194–208.
Keharia, H. and Madamwar, D. (2003). Bioremediation concepts for treatment of dye containing wastewater: A review. Indian J. Exp. Biol., 41: 1068-1075.
Kinae, N., Hashu, T., Makita, T., Tomita, I., Kimura, I. and Kanamori, H. (1981). Studies on the toxicity of pulp and paper mill effluents : mutagenicity of the sediment samples derived from kraft paper mills. Water Res., 15:17–24.
Kucerova, R. (2006). Application of Pseudomonas putida and Rhodococcus sp. by biodegradation of PAH(S), PCB(S) and NEL soil samples from the hazardous waste dump in pozdatky (Czech republic). Rud.-geol.-naft. Zb.,1897:101.
Leuenberger, C., Geger, W., Coney, R., Grayder, J. M., Molnar-Kubica, E. (1985). Persistence chemicals in pulp mill effluent: occurrence and behavior in an activated sludge treatment plant. Water Res.,19:885–894.
Lindstrom-Seppa, P., Hunskonen, S., Kotelevtsev, S., Mikkelson, P. and Rannen, T. (1998). Toxicity and mutagenicity of waste waters from Baikalsk pulp and paper mill:Evaluation of pollutant contamination in Lake Baikal. Mar. Environ. Res., 46:273–277.
Malaviya, P. and Rathore, V. S. (2007). Bioremediation of pulp and paper mill effluent by a novel fungal consortium isolated from polluted soil. Biores. Technol.,98:3647–3651.
Mandal, T. N. and Bandana, T. N. (1996). Studies on physicochemical and biological characteristics of pulp and paper mill effluents and its impact on human beings. J. Fresh Biol., 8:191–196.
Mishra, A., Tripathi, C.P.M., Dwivedi, A.K. and Dubey, V.K. (2011). Acute toxicity and behavioral response of freshwater fish, Mystusvittatus exposed to pulp mill effluent. J. Environ. Chem. Ecotoxicol., 3: 167-172.
Monte, M.C., Fuente, E., Blanco, A. and Negro, C. (2009). Waste management from pulp and paper production in the European Union. Waste Manage., 29: 293-308.
Mueller, J.G., Cerniglia, C.E. and Pritchard, P.H. (1996). Bioremediation of environments contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In Bioremediation: Principles and applications. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 125-194.
Murugesan, K. (2003). Bioremediation of paper and pulp mill effluents. Ind. J. Exp. Biol., 441: 1239-1248.
Nagarthnamma, R., Bajpai, P. and Bajpai, P.K. (1999). Studies on decolourization, degradation and detoxification of chlorinated lignin compounds in kraft bleaching effluents by Ceriporiopsis subvermispora. Process Biochem., 34: 939-948.
Patel, H. and Madamwar, D. (2002). Effects of temperatures and organic loading rates on biomethanation of acidic petrochemical wastewater using an anaerobic upflow fixed-film reactor. Bioresour. Technol., 82(1):65-71.
Prasongsuk, S., Lotrakul, P., Imai, T. and Punnapayak, H. (2009). Decolourization of pulp mill wastewater using thermotolerant white rot fungi. Sci. Asia, 35: 37-41.
Ragunathan, R. and Swaminathan, K. (2004). Biological treatment of pulp and paper industry effluent by Pleurotus spp. World J. Micro. Biotech., 20:389–393.
Raj, A., Kumar, S., Haq, I. and Singh, S.K. (2014). Bioremediation and toxicity reduction in pulp and paper mill effluent by newly isolated ligninolytic Paenibacillus sp. Ecol. Eng., 71: 355-362.
Raj, A., Reddy, M.M.K,. Chandra, R., Purohit, H.J. and Kapley, A. (2007). Biodegradation of kraft-lignin by Bacillus sp. Isolated from sludge of pulp and paper mill. Biodegradation,18: 783-792.
Ramos, W.D.L.S., Poznyak, T., Chairez, I. and Cordova, R.I. (2009). Remediation of lignin and its derivatives from pulp and paper industry wastewater by the combination of chemical precipitation and ozonation. J. Hazard. Mater., 169: 428-434.
Ramsay J.A. and Nguyen, T. (2002). Decoloration of textile dyes by Trametes versicolor and its effect on dye toxicity. Biotechnology Lett., 24(21):1757-1761.
Saritha, V., Maruthi, Y.A. and Mukkanti, K. (2010). Potential fungi for bioremediation of industrial effluents. Bio. Resources, 5: 8-22.
Senthilkumar, S., Perumalsamy, M. and Prabhu, H.J. (2014). Decolourization potential of white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporiumon synthetic dye bath effluent containing Amido black 10B. J. Saudi Chem. Soc., 18: 845-853.
Sharma, P., Goel, R. and Capalash, N. (2007). Bacterial laccases. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 23: 823-832.
Sharma, R., Chandra, S., Singh, A. and Singh, K. (2014). Degradation of pulp and paper mill effluents. IIOAB J., 5: 6-12.
Singhal, A. and Thakur, I.S. (2009). Decolourization and detoxification of pulp and paper mill effluent by Cryptococcus sp. Biochem. Eng. J., 46: 21-27.
Sumathi, S. and Phatak, V. (1999). Fungal treatment of bagasse based pulp and paper mill wastes. Environ. Technol., 20: 93-98.
Tiku, D.K., Kumar, A., Chaturvedi, R.,Makhijani, S.D.,Manoharan, A. and Kumar, R. (2010). Holistic bioremediation of pulp mill effluents using autochthonous bacteria. Int. Biodeterior. Biodegrad., 64:173-183
Tyagi, S., Kumar, V., Singh, J., Teotia, P., Bisht, S. and Sharma, S. (2014). Bioremediation of pulp and paper mill effluent by dominant aboriginal microbes and their consortium. Int. J. Environ. Res., 8: 561-568.
US EPA., (1995). EPA office of compliance sector notebook project: profile of pulp and paper industry, Washington, DC 20460. US EPA/310-R-95-015.
Vass, K. K., Mukopadhyay, M. K., Mistra, K. and Joshi, H. C. (1996). Respiratory stresses in fishes exposed to paper and pulp wastewater. Environ. Ecol., 14:895–897
Verma, P. and Madamwar, D. (2002). Production of ligninolytic enzymes for dye decolorization by cocultivation of white-rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus and Phanerochaete chrysosporium under solid-state fermentation. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol., 102: 109-118.
Wilson, A.E., Moore, E.R. and Mohn, W.W. (1996). Isolation and characterization of isopimaric acid-degrading bacteria from a sequencing batch reactor. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 62: 3146-3151.
Wu, J., Xiao, Y.Z. and Yu, H.Q. (2005). Degradation of lignin in pulp mill wastewaters by white-rot fungi on biofilm. Bioresour. Technol., 96: 1357-1363.
Yang, C., Cao, G., Li, Y., Zhang, X. and Ren, H. (2008). A constructed alkaline consortium and its dynamics in treating alkaline black liquor with very high pollution load. PLoS One, 3 (10): 1371
Yang, Q., Angly, F.E., Wang, Z. and Zhang, H. (2011). Wastewater treatment systems harbor specific and diverse yeast communities. Biochem. Eng. J., 58(59):168-176
This work is licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0)