Bipul Kumar Kakati Umesh Ch Goswami


Fermented Setipinnaphasa (Phassya Shidal) is a traditional fish product, popular in the north eastern states of India, because of its typical flavor and aroma. The proximate composition, biochemical, microbiological and sensory qualities of Phassya Shidal available in markets were studied. The results of the analysis showed that the market samples of Phassya Shidal were a good source of protein (27.20%). The pH and moisture content were 6.2 and 37.52%, respectively. Both Phassya Shidal and fresh Setipinnaphasa (raw material) were rich in lysine, leucine, valine, aspartic acid, alanine and glutamic acid. The effect of fermentation on the amino acids content of the sample was not significant except in histidine (P<0.05). An increase in the contents of fatty acids and amino acids composi-tion was observed in the Phassya Shidal during fermentation. Significant variations (P<0.05) in the proportions of some unsaturated fatty acids were noticed between product and fresh fish. The major saturated fatty acids were C16:0 and C18:0. The Oleic acid was the prominent monounsaturated fatty acid. The dominant polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were of the n-3 series. The major PUFA found chiefly in linoleic acid and linolenic acid in both the samples. The physicochemical analysis revealed that the product was of acceptable quality. The bacterial flora of Phaasya Shidal comprised of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus spp. and Escherichia coli indicating unhygienic handling practices during preparation and storage. Though the product had acceptable sensory quality, strict hygienic measures should be adopted during processing to safeguard the health of the consumers.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...




Fermentation, Phassya Shidal, Quality evaluation, Setipinnaphasa, Traditional fish product

Agrahar-Murugkar, D. and Subbulakshmi, G. (2006). Preparation techniques and nutritive value of fermented foods from the Khasi tribes of Meghalaya. Ecol. Food Nut., 45 (1): 27-38
Ahmed, S., Dora, K.C., Sarkar, S., Chowdhury, S. and Ganguly, S. (2013). Quality analysis of Shidal-a traditional fermented fish product of Assam, North-East India. Indian J. Fish., 60(1): 117-123
Anon (1964). An evaluation of public health hazards from microbiological contamination of food. Publication 1195. National academy of sciences, National Research Council, Washington, D.C.
AOAC (2000). Official Methods of Analysis, 17th Edition, Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Washington, D.C., USA.
APHA (2001). Compendium of Methods for the Microbiological Examination of foods. Frances, P. D. and keith, I. (4th Ed.), American Public Health Association Inc., New York.
Azam, K., Basher, M.Z., Ali, M.Y., Asaduzzaman, M. and Hossain, M.M. (2003). Comparative study of organoleptic, microbiological and biochemical qualities of four selected dried fish in summer and winter. Pakistan J. Bio. Sci., 6 (24):2030-2033
Balachandran, K.K. (2001). Fermented products. In: Post-harvest technology of fish and fishery products. Daya Publishing House, Delhi, p. 146-157
Beddows, C.G., Ardeshir, A.G. and Daud, W.J. (1980). Development and origin of volatile fatty acids in Budu. J. Sci. Food Agric., 31:86-92
Bhaskar, N., Miyashita, K. and Hosokawa, M. (2006). Physiological effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-A review. Food Rev. Int., 22:291–307
Chang, C.M., Ohshima, T. and Koizumi, C. (1991). Lipid free amino acid and organic composition of rice bran-fermented sardine. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi, 57:1579-1585
Chang, C.M., Ohshima, T. and Koizumi, C. (1994). Changes in the composition of five amino acids, organic acids and lipids during processing and ripening of 'Hatahata-Zushi', a fermented fish product of sandfish (Arctoscopus japonicus) and boiled rice. J. Sci. Food Agric., 66(1):75-82
Christie, W.W. (1993). Preparation of ester derivatives of fatty acids for chromatographic analysis. In: Christie, W.W. (Ed) Advances in lipid methodology-two, Dundee: Oily Press. p. 69–111
Conway, E.J. (1947). Micro Diffusion Analysis and Volumetric Error. Crossby, Lockwood and Sons, London.
Das, A.J. and Deka, S.C. (2012). Fermented foods and beverages of the North-East India- Mini Review. Int. Food Res. J., 19(2):377-392
Dincer, T., Cakli, S., Kilinc, B. and Tolasa, S. (2010). Amino acids and fatty acids composition content of fish sauce. J. Animal Vety. Adv., 9(2):311-315
Dyer, W.J., French, H.V. and Snow, J.M. (1950). Proteins in fish muscle, extraction of protein fraction in flesh. J. Fish. Res. Bd.Con., 7:585-593
Fontana, A., Antoniazz, F., Cimino, G., Mazza, G., Trivellone, E. and Zanoni, B. (1993). High resolution NMR detection of cholesterol oxides in spray-dried egg yolk. J. Food Sci., 57: 869
Gopakumar, K. and Devadasan, K. (1982). The fish curing industry in India. In: James, D. (Ed) The production and storage of dried fish. FAO Fisheries Report- 279, p. 63-68
Hazen, T. (1988). Faecal coliform as indicator in tropical water: A review. Toxic Assess., 3: 461-477
Hernandaz-Herrero, M.M., Roig-Saugues, A.X., Lopez-Sabater, E.I., Rodriguez, J.J. and Mora-Ventura, M.T. (1999). Total volatile basic nitrogen and other physiochemical and microbiological characteristics as related to ripening of salted anchovies. J. Food Sci.,64(2):344-347
ICMSF (1996). Microbiological specifications of food pathogens Roberts. In: Baird, T. A., Parker, A. C. and Tompkin, R.B. (Eds), Blackie Academic and Professional, UK.
Jacobs, M.B. (1958). The chemical analysis of foods and food products. New York Krieger Publishing Co. Inc., USA. p. 393-394
Josephson, D.B. (1991). Seafood. In: Maarse, H. (Ed) Volatile compounds in food and Beverages. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, p. 179-202
Kakati, B.K. and Goswami, U.C. (2012). Namsing- A traditional semi-fermented fish product of ethnic tribes of the Brahmaputra valley of Assam, Fishing Chimes, 32(2):30-31
Kakati, B.K. and Goswami, U.C. (2013a). Characterization of the traditional fermented fish product Shidal of Northeast India prepared from Puntius sophore and Setipinna phasa. Indian J. Ttradit. Knowle., 12(1):85-90
Kakati, B.K. and Goswami, U.C. (2013b). Microorganisms and the nutritive value of traditional fermented fish products Northeast India. Global J. Bio-Sci. Biotechnol., 2 (1):124-127
Kim, S.K. and Mendis, E. (2006). Bioactive compounds from marine processing by-products-A review. Food Res. Int. 39: 383–393
Lilabati, H., Vishwanath, W. and Singh, M.S. (1999). Changes in bacterial and fungal quality during storage of smoked Esomus danricus of Manipur. Fish. Technol., 36(1): 36-39
Mahanta, P. and Muzaddadi, A.U. (2012). Post-fermentation preservation of Shidal-a fermented fish product of north-east India. Fish. Technol., 49(2):177-186
Majumdar, R.K. (2007). Phassya Shidal- A traditional fermented fish product of NE India. Fishing Chimes, 27 (5):30-31
Majumdar, R.K. and Basu, S. (2010). Characterization of the traditional fermented fish product Lona ilish of Northeast India. Indian J. Tradit. Knowle., 9(3): 453- 458
Majumdar, R.K., Basu, S. and Anandan, R. (2005). Biochemical and microbiological characteristics of salt fermented Hilsa (Tenualosa ilisha). Fish. Technol., 42(1):67-70
Muzaddadi, A.U. and Basu, S. (2012). An accelerated process for fermented fish (Seedal) production in Northeast region of India. Indian J. Animal Sci., 82(1): 98-106.
Narayan, B., Hathwar, S.C. and Hemavathi, D. (2012). Lipid class and fatty acid composition of meat and non meat components of selected sea foods. Indian J. Fish., 59(1): 133-139
Nayeem, M.A., Pervin, K., Reza, M.S., Khan, M.A., Islam, M.N. and Kamal, M. (2010). Quality assessment of traditional semi fermented fishery product (Chepa Shutki) of Bangladesh collected from the value chain. Bangladesh Res. Pub. J., 4(1): 41-46
Nimish, M.S., Jeya, S.R., Jeyasekaran, G. and Sukumar, D. (2010). Effect of different types of heat processing on chemical changes in tuna. J. Food Sci. Technol., 47:174–181
Nychas, G.J.E. and Arkoudelos, J.S. (1990). Staphylococci: their role in fermented Sausages. J. Appl. Bateriol., 19:167s-188s
Olley, T. and Loveren, J.A. (1960). Phospholipids hydrolysis of cod flesh stored at various temperatures. J. Sci. Food Agric., 11(11):644-652
Rabie, M., Simon-Sarkadi, L., Siliha, H., El-Seedy, S. and El-Badaway, A.A. (2009). Changes in free amino acids and biogenic amines of Egyptian salt fermented fish (Feseekh) during ripening and storage. Food Chem., 115(2):635-638
Rieman, H. and Bryan, F.L. (1979). Food borne, infections and intoxication, Academic Press, New York, p. 613.
Rustad, T. (2003). Utilization of marine by-products. Electronic J. Environ. Agric. Food Chem., 2: 458–463
Sarojnalini, C. and Singh, W.V. (1988). Composition and digestibility of fermented fish foods of Manipur. J. Food Sci. Technol., 25:349-351
Sarojnalini, C. and Suchitra, T. (2009). Microbial and nutritional evaluation of fermented Setipinna species. Fish. Technol., 46:165-170
Sastry, C.S.P. and Tummuru, M.K. (1985). Spectro photometric determination of tryptophan in protein. J. Food Sci. Technol., 22:146-147
SPSS (2000). Statistical Package for Social Sciences for Windows. Release 10. Chicago, I.L. SPSS Inc.
Thongthai, C. and Siriwongpairat, M. (1990). The sequential quantitization of microorganisms in traditionally fermented fish sauce (Nam-pla). In: Reilu, P.J.A., Parry, R.W.H. and Barlie, L.E. (Eds) Post harvest technology, preservation and quality of fish in Southeast Asia, International Foundation of Science Stockholm, p. 51-59
Toldra, F. and Flores, M. (1998). The role of muscle proteases and lipases in flavor development during the processing of dry-cured ham. Crit. Rev. Food Sci., 38:331–352
Ugoala, C., Ndukwe, G.I. and Audu, T.O. (2008). Comparison fatty acids profile of some fresh water and marine fishes. Internet J. Food Safety., 10: 9-17.
USFDA (2001). Bacteriological Analytical Manual, 8th Edition (Revised) Association of Official Analytical Chemist, Washington D. C.
Visessanguan, W., Benjakul, S., Riebroy, S., Yarchai, M. and Tapingkae, W. (2006). Changes in lipid composition and fatty acid profile of Nham - a Thai fermented pork sausage, during fermentation. Food Chem., 94:580–588
Watanaputi, S.P., Chanyavongse, R., Tubplean, S., Tanasuphratana, S. and Srimahasongkhraam, S. (1983). Microbiological analysis of Thai fermented foods. J. Graduate School, Chulalongkorn University. 4:11–24
Citation Format
How to Cite
Kakati, B. K., & Goswami, U. C. (2017). Nutritional, microbial and sensory quality evaluation of fermented Setipinnaphasa, Hamilton 1822, (PhassyaShidal), marketed in North-east India. Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 9(1), 237–244. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v9i1.1179
More Citation Formats:
Research Articles