A. K. Thakur D. K. Yadav M. K. Jhariya


The pugmark analysis of the elephants offers basic information to track the wild elephant migratory route, identification and census. For its study, four blocks viz, Sitapur, Lundra, Batouli (Sarguja district) and Farsabahar (Jashpur district) of northern Chhattisgarh were selected because these blocks are commonly visited by elephants and a major path route of movement of heard in inter/intra state. The most commonly consumed species belongs to family poaceae (22.58%) followed by fabaceae (19.35%) but their diet was mainly dependent on availability of seasonal food round the year and on their migration. Elephants extensively fed on Artocarpus heterophyllus, Syzygium cumini, Acacia nilotica, A. catechu, Dalbergia sissoo, Zizyphus mauritiana, Aegle marmelos and Ficus species, besides these elephants also utilized various grasses and shrubs as their food, which mainly included Dendrocalamus strictus, Cynodon dactylon etc. Elephants sometimes spent long time to feed on some particular plant species like D. strictus and Ficus species. Crop raiding, which was sporadic during the rainy season, gradually increased with more area being cultivated with the onset of monsoon. Analysis of pugmark revealed that the circumference varied from 63.80 cm to 172.70 cm whereas length x width varied from 22x20 cm to 60x55 cm, which reflects a substantial variation/differentiation of individual in heard in respect of their age, sex, size etcTherefore, management implications are needed to conserve the corridors for their long term survival and reduction of HEC. The study will be helpful to provide key information and facilitate better understating of the scenario to the forest department, policy maker and conservationist to plan, manage and improve the habitat towards the restoration and afforestation of suitable palatable species preferred by elephants of northern corridors of Chhattisgarh.




Asian elephant, Corridor, Feeding behavior, Habitat, Pugmark analysis

Areendran, G., Raj, K., Mazumdar, S., Munsi, M., Govil, H. and Sen, P. K. (2011). Geospatial modeling to assess elephant habitat suitability and corridors in northern Chhattisgarh, India. Tropical Ecology, 52(3): 275-283
Borah, J. and Deka, K. (2008). Nutritional evaluation of forage preferred by wild elephants in the Rani Range Forest, Assam, India. Gajaha, 28: 41-43
Borah, R.K. and Bhuyan, N. (2016). A comprehensive study of human-elephant conflict in the bordering areas of the three reserve forests of Lakhimpur district, Assam. In-ternational Journal of Interdisciplinary Research in Science Society and Culture, 2(1): 132-143
Chambers, R. (1994). The origins and practice of participa-tory rural appraisal. World Development, 22(7): 953-969
Dharmaratne, M.P.J. and Magedaragamage, P.C. (2014). Human-Elephant conflict and solution to it in Sri Lanka. Sciscitator, 1: 56-58
EMS (2008). A Home for Elephants, People and Tribal Com-munities: Managing Human Elephant Conflict in Chhattisgarh. Detailed Project Report. Earth Matters Foundation, New Delhi.
Graham, M.D., Notter, B., Adams, W.M., Lee, P.C. and Ochieng, T.N. (2010). Patterns of crop-raiding by elephants, Loxodonta africana, in Laikipia, Kenya, and the management of human– elephant conflict. Syst. Bio-diver., 8: 435–445
Gubbi, S. (2012). Patterns and correlates of human–elephant conflict around a south Indian reserve. Biological Con-servation, Doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2012.01.046.
Hedges, S. and Gunaryadi, D. (2009). Reducing human–elephant conflict: do chillies help deter elephants from entering crop fields? Oryx – Int. J. Conserv., 44: 139–146
Ishwaran, N. (1983). Elephant and woody-plant relationships in Gal Oya Sri Lanka. Biological Conservation, 26: 255-270
Jhariya, M.K. and Yadav, D.K. (2016). Understorey vegeta-tion in natural and plantation forest ecosystem of Sarguja (C.G.), India. Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 8(2): 668-673
McKay, G.M. (1973). Behaviour and Ecology of the Asiatic Elephants in SoutheasternCeylon. Smithsonian Contri-butions to Zoology 125, Smithsonian Institution Schol-arly Press, Washington D.C.
Mercy, A.D. (2002). Feeding of elephant. Journal of Indian Veterinary Assoc., 7(3): 18-20
MoEF. (2010). Gajah: Securing the future for elephants in India. GoI, New Delhi, India.
Moss, C. (1988). Elephant memories, Thirteen years in the Life of an Elephant Family. William Morrrow and Co. Inc, New York.
Mueller-Dombois, D. (1972). Crown distortion and elephant distribution in the woody vegetation of Ruhunu National Park, Ceylon. Ecology, 53: 208- 226
Prabu, M. and Kumar, G.P. (2016). Review on recent ad-vances in elephant tracking and detection: a sensorial approach. Asian Journal of Information Technology, 15(6):1132-1138
Santiapillai, C. and Read, B. (2010). Would masking the smell of ripening paddy-fields help mitigate human-elephant conflict in Sri Lanka? Oryx, 44: 509-511
Senthikumar, K., Mathialagan, P., Manivannan, C., Jayathangaraj, M.G. and Gomathinayagam, S. (2016). A study on the tolerance level of farmers toward human-wildlife conflict in the forest buffer zones of Tamil Na-du. Veterinary World, 9(7): 747-752
Singh, R.K. (2002). Elephants in exile: A rapid assessment of the Human-Elephant conflict in Chhattisgarh. An Occa-sional Report of a Rapid Action Project as part of the Elephant Conservation Project. Occasional Report No. 5, Wildlife Trust of India, New Delhi.
Sinha, R., Jhariya, M.K. and Yadav, D.K. (2015). Assess-ment of Sal Seedlings and Herbaceous Flora in the Khairbar Plantation of Sarguja Forest Division, Chhattisgarh. Current World Environment, 10(1): 330-337
Sinha, R., Yadav, D.K. and Jhariya, M.K. (2014). Growth performance of Sal in Mahamaya central forest nursery (Ambikapur), Chhattisgarh. International Journal of Scientific Research, 3(11): 246-248
Sivaganesan, N. and Johnsingh, A.J.T. (1995). Food re-sources crucial to the wild elephants in Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary, South India. In: A Week with Ele-phants (J.C. Daniel and H.S. Datye, eds.), pp. 405-423. Bombay Natural History Society/Oxford University Press, Bombay.
Sivaganesan, N. and Kumar, A. (1995). Status of feral ele-phants in Andaman. In: Week with Elephants. Daniel, J.C. And Datye, H.S. (eds.). Proceedings of the Interna-tional Seminar on the Conservation of Asian Elephant, Bombay Natural History Society, New Delhi, Pp. 97-117
Sukumar, R. (1991). The management of large mammals in relation to male strategies and conflict with people. Biol. Conserv., 55: 93–102
Sukumar, R. (1985). Ecology of the Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus) and It’s Interaction with Man in South India. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore.
Thakur, A.K., Yadav, D.K. and Jhariya, M.K. (2015). Hu-man-elephant conflict scenario in corridors of Northern Chhattisgarh. Journal of Plant Development Sciences, 7(11): 821-825
Vancuylenberg, B.W.B. (1977). Feeding behavior of the Asi-atic elephant in southeast Sri Lanka in relation to con-servation. Biological Conservation, 12: 33-54
Yadav, D.K., Jhariya, M.K., Kumar, A. and Sinha, R. (2015). Documentation and ethnobotanical importance of me-dicinal plants found in Sarguja district. Journal of Plant Development Sciences,7(5): 439-446
Research Articles

How to Cite

Feeding behaviour and pugmark analysis of elephants in Sarguja, Chhattisgarh. (2016). Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 8(4), 2060-2065. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v8i4.1087