In type 1 diabetes, there is a lack of insulin production and in type 2, diabetes resistances to the effects of insulin are predominant. Both type 1 and type 2 have the same long-term complications. Diabetes effects zinc homeostasis in many ways, although it is most probably the hyperglycemia which is responsible for the increased urinary loss and decreases in total body zinc. The role of Zn deficiency exacerbates the cytokine-induced damage in the autoimmune attack which destroys the islet cell in type 1 diabetes, is unclear. Since Zn plays a clear role in the synthesis, storage and secretion of insulin as well as conformational integrity of insulin in the hexameric form, the decreased Zn, which affects the ability of the islet cell to produce and secrete insulin in type 2 diabetes. Oxidative stress and cellular dysfunction in diabetes may be related to increased intracellular oxidants and free radicals associated with decrease in intracellular Zn and in Zn dependent antioxidant enzymes. There appears to be a complex interrelationship between Zn and both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Zn plays a key role in the cellular antioxidative defense. Dysfunctional zinc signaling is associated with a number of chronic disease states including cancer, cardiovascular disease, Alzheimerâ€™s disease, and diabetes. Cellular homeostasis requires mechanisms that tightly control the uptake, storage, and distribution of zinc. This is achieved through the coordinated actions of zinc transporters and metallothioneins.
Antioxidants, Homeostasis, Hyperglycemia, Juvenile, Zinc
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