##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

Manoj Kumar Jhariya Abhishek Raj

Abstract

Fire is one of the most destructive threats faced by our forests. Fire is good servant but a bad master. The fire season starts in March/April continues up to June. Wildfires destroy not only flora (tree, herbs, grassland, forbs, etc.) and their diversity but also considerable long term negative impact on fauna including wild endangered species. Repeated fires can convert some shrub-lands to grass and fire exclusion converts some grassland to shrub-land and forest. Fires affect animals mainly through effects on their habitat. The extent of fire effects on animal communities generally depends on the extent of change in habitat structure and species composition caused by fire. Fire can also influence a physico-chemical property of soil including texture, color, bulk density, pH, porosity, organic matter, nutrient availability and soil biota. Drought, disease, insect infestation, overgrazing or a combination of these factors may
increase the impact of fire on an individual plant species or communities. Common effects include plant mortality, increase flowering, seed production and numerous communal affects. Fire affected area showed reduction in species diversity both in flora and fauna. In a social context, fire directly affects people, property and infrastructure, thereby directly affecting the health and livelihood of individuals and communities.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

Keywords

Diversity, Flora, Fauna, Habitat, Wildfires

References
Abrams, M.D. (1992). Fire and the development of oak forest. Bioscience, 42(5): 346–353.
Achard, E., Eva, H.D., Mollicone, D. and Beuchle, R. (2008). The effect of climate anomalies and human ignition factor on wildfires in Russian boreal forests. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 363: 2331-2339.
Ajwa, H.A., Dell, J. and Rice, C.W. (1999). Changes in enzyme activities and microbial biomass of tall-grass prairie soil as related to burning and nitrogen fertilization. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 31: 769-777.
Allen, M.F. and Rincon, E. (2003). The changing global environment and the lowland Maya: past patterns and current dynamics. In: The lowlands Maya Area: Three Millennia at the Human-Wildland Interface (eds Gomez-Pompa, A, Allen, M.F., Fedick, S.L., Jimenez-Osornio, J.J.), pp. 13-30. Haworth Press, Binghamton, N.Y.
Aref, I.M., Atta, H.A., Ghamade, A.R. (2011). Effects of forest fires on tree diversity and some soil properties. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 13: 659-664.
Asner, G.P., Seastedt, T.R. and Townsend, A.R. (1997). The decoupling of terrestrial carbon and nitrogen cycles. Bioscience, 47: 226-234.
Azizi, P., Shafiei, A.B., Akbarinia, M., Jalali, S.G. and Hosseini, S.M. (2006). Effect of Fire on Herbal Layer Biodiversity in a Temperate Forest of Northern Iran. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 9: 2273-2277.
Badarinath, K.V.S. and Vadrevu, K.P. (2011). Carbon dioxide emissions from forest biomass burning in India. Global Environmental Research, 15: 45-52.
Badia, D. and Marti, C. (2003). Plant ash and heat intensity effects on chemical and physical properties of two contrasting soils. Arid Land Research Management, 17: 23-41.
Bakhtar, A.J., Sagheb-Talebi, K., Mohajer, M.R.M. and Haidari, M. (2013). The impact of fire on the forest and plants diversity in Iranian Oak forest. International journal of Advanced Biological and Biomedical Research, 1(3): 273-284.
Boerner, R.E., Huang, J. and Hart, S.C. (2009). Impacts of fire and fire surrogate treatments on forest soil properties: A meta-analytical approach. Ecol. Appli., 19: 338-358.
Boerner, R.E.J., Brinkman, J.A. and Sutherland, E.K. (2004). Effects of fire at two frequencies on nitrogen transformation and soil chemistry in a nitrogen-enriched forest landscape. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 34: 609-618.
Bond, W.J. and Van Wilgen, B.W. (1996). Fire and plants. London: Chapman and Hall. 272 pp.
Bormann, B.T., Homann, P.S., Darbyshire, R.L. and Morrissette, B.A. (2008). Intense forest wildfire sharply reduces mineral soil C and N: the first direct evidence. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 38: 2771-2783.
Bradstock, R.A., Cohn, J.S., Gil, A.M., Bedward, M. and Lucas, C. (2009). Prediction of the probability of large fires in the Sydney region of south-eastern Australia using fire weather. International Journal of Wild-land Fire, 18: 932-943.
Bull, E.L. and Blumton, A.K. (1999). Effect of fuels reduction on American martens and their prey. Res. Note PNW-RN-539. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 9 pp.
Busse, M.D., Cochran, P.H. and Barrett, J.W. (1996). Change in Ponderosa pine site productivity following removal of understory vegetation. Soil Sci. Soc. America, 60: 1614-1621.
Busse, M.D., Simon, S.A. and Riegel, G.M. (2000). Tree-growth and under story response to low-severity prescribed burning in thinned Ponderosa Pine Forest of Central Oregon. Forest Science, 46: 258-268.
Campbell, C.D., Cameron, C.M., Bastias, B.A., Chen, C.G. and Cairney, J.W.G. (2008). Long term repeated burning in a wet sclerophyll forest reduces fungal and bacterial biomass and responses to carbon substrates. Soil Biol Biochem., 40: 2246-2252.
Casanova, J.L., Calle, A., Sanz, J., González-Alonso, F., Godammer, J.G., Li, Z. and Quin, X. (2008). Monitoring of forest fires in China through the ENVISAT-AATSR sensor. European Space Agency Special Publication, ESA SP (655 SP), Paris, France.
Certini, G. (2005). Effects of fire on properties of forest soils: a review. Oecologia, 143: 1-10.
Champion, H.G. and Seth, S.K. (1968). A revised survey of forest types in India. Government of India Publication, and New Delhi.
Chandra, S. (2005). Application of remote sensing and GIS Technology in forest fire Risk Modeling and management of forest fires: A case study in Garhwal Himalayan Region. Geo-information for Disaster management. In: Oosterom, P., Zlatanova, S. and Fendel, E. (Eds.) 2005, XXVI, 1434p. 516 illus, ISBN: 978-3-540-24988-7.
Chatenoux, B. and Peduzzi, P. (2012). Biomass fires: preliminary estimation of ecosystems global economic losses. UNEP/GRID-Geneva. pp. 1-11.
Chen, Y., Randerson, J.T., Van der Werf, R., Morten, G.R., Mu, M. and Kasibhatla, P.S. (2010). Nitrogen deposition in tropical forests from savanna and deforestation fires. Global Change Biology, 16: 2024-2038.
Choromanska, U. and DeLuca, T.H. (2001). Prescribed fire alters the impacts of wildfire on soil biochemical properties in a ponderosa pine forest. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 65: 232-238.
Connell, J.H. (1978). Diversity in tropical forests and coral reefs. Science, 1999: 1302-1310.
Dawson, T.P., Butt, N. and Miller, F. (2002). The ecology of forest fires. ASEAN Biodiversity, 1: 18-21.
DeBano, L.F. (1990). The effect of forest fire on soil properties. Symposium on management and productivity of Western-Montane forest soil. Boise, ID, USA, pp 151-156.
DeBano, L.F. (2000). The role of fire and soil heating on water repellency in Wildland environments: a review. Journal of Hydrology, 231-232: 195-206.
DeBano, L.F., Neary, D.G. and Folliott, P.F. (1998). Fire’s effects on Ecosystems. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. New York.
Decocq, G., Aubert, M., Dupont, F., Alard, D., Saguez, R., Wattez-Franger, A., Foucault, B. DE, Delelis-Dusollier, A. and Bardat, J. (2004). Plant diversity in a managed temperate deciduous forest: understorey response to two silvicultural systems. J. Appl. Ecol., 41: 1065-1079.
Dezzeo, N and Chacon, N. (2006). Litter-fall and nutrient input in undisturbed and adjacent fire disturbed forests of the Gran Sabana, Southern Venezuela. Interciencia, 31(12): 894-899.
Dixon, R.K. and Turner, D.P. (1991). The global carbon cycle and climate change-responses and feedbacks from below-ground systems. Environmental Pollution, 73: 245-262.
Dixon, R.K., Brown, S., Houghton, R.A., Solomon, A.M., Trexler, M.C. and Wisniewski, J. (1994). Carbon pools and flux of global forest ecosystems. Science, 263: 185-190.
Ekinci, H. (2006). Effect of forest fire on some physical, chemical and biological properties of soil in Canakkale, Turkey. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 8(1): 102-106.
FAO (2007). Fire management global assessment (2006). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation, 2007.
FSI (2012). Vulnerability of India’s forest to fires. MOEF, Dehradun. Pp. 7.
Fynn, R.W.S., Haynes, R.J. and O’Connor, T.G. (2003). Burning causes long-term changes in soil organic matter content of South African grassland. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 35: 677-687.
Garcia-Marco, S. and Gonzalez-Prieto, S. (2008). Short-and medium-term effects of fire and fire-fighting chemicals on soil micronutrient availability. The Science of Total Environment, 407: 297-303.
Gianoli, E., Saldana, A., Jimenez-Castillo, M. and Valladares, F. (2010). Distribution and abundance of vines along the light gradient in southern temperate rain forest. Journal of Vegetation Science, 21: 66-73.
Grady, K.C. and Hart, S.C. (2006). Influences of thinning, prescribed burning and wildfire on soil processes and properties in southwestern ponderosa pine forests: a retrospective study. Forest Ecology and Management, 234: 123-135.
Hiremath, A.J. and Sundaram, B. (2005). The fire-lantana cycle hypothesis in Indian forests. Conservation and Society, 3: 26–42.
Hogberg, M.N., Hogberg, P. and Myrold, D.D. (2007). Is microbial composition in boreal forest soils determined by PH, C/N ratio, the trees, or all three? Oecologia, 150: 590-601.
Holdo, R.M., Holt, R.D. and Fryxell, J.M. (2009). Grazers, browsers, and fire influence the extent and spatial pattern of tree cover in the Serengeti. Ecological Applications, 19: 95-109.
Huff, M.H. and Smith, J.K. (2000). Fire effects on animal communities. In: Smith, J.K., ed. Wildland fire in ecosystems: effects of fire on fauna. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 1. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station; 35–42 pp.
IFFN (2002). Fire situation in India. International Forest Fire News, 26: 23-27.
Ivanauskas, N.M., Monteiro, R. and Rodrigues, R.R. (2003). Alterations following a fire in a forest community of Alto Rio Xingu. For. Ecol. Manage., 184: 239-250.
Jaiswal, R.K., Mukherjee, S., Raju, K.D. and Saxena, R. (2002). Forest fire risk zone mapping from satellite imagery and GIS. Int. J. Appl. Earth Observ. Geoinformation, 4: 1-10.
Jenkinson, D.S. and Ladd, J.N. (1981). Microbial biomass in soil, measurement and turnover. In: Paul, W.A. and Ladd, J.N. (eds.), Marcel Dekker, New York. Soil Biochemistry, 5: 415-471.
Jhariya, M.K. (2014). Effect of forest fire on microbial biomass, storage and sequestration of carbon in a tropical deciduous forest of Chhattisgarh. Ph.D. Thesis, I.G.K.V., Raipur (C.G.), pp. 259.
Jhariya, M.K., Bargali, S.S., Swamy, S.L., Kittur, B. and Bargali, K. and Pawar, G.V. (2014). Impact of forest fire on biomass and carbon storage pattern of tropical deciduous forests in Bhoramdeo Wildlife Sanctuary, Chhattisgarh. International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, 40(1): 57-74.
Jhariya, M.K. and Raj, A. (2014). Human Welfare from Biodiversity. Agrobios Newsletter, 12(9): 89-91.
Jhariya, M.K. (2013). Impact of Fires on Forest Ecosystem: Vegetational Response to Forest Fire. Lap Lambert Academic Publishing. Heinrich-Bocking-Str. 6-8, 66121, Saarbrucken, Germany. 104 pp.
Jhariya, M.K., Bargali, S.S., Swamy, S.L. and Oraon, P.R. (2013). Herbaceous diversity in proposed mining area of Rowghat in Narayanpur District of Chhattisgarh, India. Journal of Plant Development Sciences, 5(4): 385-393.
Jhariya, M.K. and Oraon, P.R. (2012a). Regeneration Status and Species Diversity along the Fire Gradients in Tropical Deciduous Forest of Chhattisgarh. Journal of Plant Development Sciences, 4(1): 49-54.
Jhariya, M.K. and Oraon, P.R. (2012b). Analysis of herbaceous diversity in fire affected areas of Bhoramdeo Wildlife Sanctuary, Chhattisgarh. The Bioscan, 7(2): 325-330.
Jhariya, M.K. and Oraon, P.R. (2012c). Lianas and Shrubs Regeneration, Distribution Pattern and Diversity in Tropical Forest Ecosystem of Chhattisgarh. The Bioscan, 7(3): 377-382.
Jhariya, M.K., Bargali, S.S., Swamy, S.L. and Kittur, B. (2012). Vegetational Structure, Diversity and Fuel Loads in Fire Affected areas of Tropical Dry Deciduous Forests in Chhattisgarh. Vegetos, 25(1): 210-224.
Jhariya, M.K. (2011). Impact of forest fire on biodiversity conservation. Int. Res. J. Lab to Land, 3(12): 555-560.
Jhariya, M.K. (2010). Analysis of vegetational structure, diversity and fuel load in fire affected areas of tropical dry deciduous forests in Chhattisgarh. M.Sc. Thesis, I.G.K.V., Raipur (C.G.), pp. 86.
Johnson, D.W. (1992). Effects of forest management on soil carbon storage. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 64: 83-120.
Johnson, D.W. and Curtis, P.S. (2001). Effects of forest management on soil C and N storage: meta-analysis. Forest Ecology and Management, 140: 227-238.
Joshi, N.R., Tewari, A. and Chand, D.B. (2013). Impacts of forest fire and aspects on phytosociology, tree biomass and carbon stock in oak and pine mixed forests of Kumaun central Himalaya, India. Researcher, 5(3): 1-8.
Kauffman, J.B., Steele, M.D., Cummings, D.L. and Jaramillo, V.J. (2003). Biomass dynamics associated with deforestation, fire, and, conversions to cattle pasture in a Mexican tropical dry forest. Forest Ecology and Management, 176: 1-12.
Keith, R.P., Thomas, T.V., Tania, L.S. and Rosemary, L.S. (2010). Understory vegetation indicates historic fire regimes in ponderosa pine-dominated ecosystems in the Colorado Front Range. Journal of Vegetation Science, 21: 488-499.
Khandekar, M.L., Murty, T.S., Scott, D. and Baird, W. (2000). The 1997 El Nino, Indonesian forest fires and the Malaysian smoke problem: a deadly combination of natural and man-made hazard. Natural Hazards, 21(2-3): 131-144.
Kirkpatrick, C., Conway, C.J. and Jones, P.B. (2006). Distribution and relative abundance of forest birds in relation to burn severity in southeastern Arizona. Journal of Wildlife Management, 70(4): 1005–1012.
Kittur, B., Swamy, S.L., Bargali, S.S. and Jhariya, M.K. (2014a). Wildland Fires and Moist Deciduous Forests of Chhattisgarh, India: Divergent Component Assessment. Journal of Forestry Research, (DOI) 10.1007/s11676-014-0471-0. pp. 1-10.
Kittur, B., Jhariya, M.K. and Lal, C. (2014b). Is the forest fire can affect the regeneration and species diversity. Ecology, Environment and Conservation, 20(3): 989-994.
Kittur, B. and Jhariya, M.K. (2012). Quantification of fuel loads in fire affected areas of tropical moist deciduous forests of Achanakmar-Amarkantak Biosphere Reserve. Journal of Plant Development Sciences, 4(2): 333-335.
Klock, G.O. and Grier, C.C. (1979). Effects of fire on the long-term maintenance of forest productivity. In Proc. Conf. on Forest Fertilization, Sept. 25-27, 1979. S.P. Gessel, R.M. Kenady, and W.A. Atkinson (editors). Seattle, Wash., pp. 247-250.
Knoepp, J.D., Vose, J.M. and Swank, W.T. (2004). Long-term soil response to site preparation burning in the Southern Appalachians. Forest Science, 50: 540-550.
Kodandapani, N., Cochrane, M.A. and Sukumar, R. (2008). A comparative analysis of spatial, temporal, and ecological characteristics of forest fires in a seasonally dry tropical ecosystem in the Western Ghats, India. Forest Ecology and Management, 256: 607-617.
Krishna, P.H. and Reddy, C.S. (2012). Assessment of increasing threat of forest fires in Rajasthan, India using multi-temporal remote sensing data (2005-2010). Current Science, 102(9): 1288-1297.
Kumar, R. and Thakur, V. (2008). Effect of forest fire on trees, shrubs and regeneration behavior in Chir-pine forest in northern aspects under Solan forest division. Himachal Pradesh. Indian Journal of Forestry, 31(1): 19-27.
Lal, R. (2004). Soil carbon sequestration to mitigate climate change. Geoderma, 123: 1-22.
Laughlin, D.C., Bakker, J.D., Stoddard, M.T., Daniels, M.L. and Springer, J.D. (2004). Toward reference conditions: wildfire effects on flora in an old-growth Ponderosa Pine forest. Ecol. Manage., 199: 137-152.
Laurance, W.F., Perez-Salicrup, D., Delamonica, P., Fearnside, P.M., D’angelo, S., Jerozolinski, A., Pohl, L. and Lovejoy, T.E. (2001). Rain forest fragmentation and the structure of Amazonian liana communities. Ecology, 82: 105-116.
Leckie, S.E., Prescott, C.E. and Grayston, S.J. (2004). Forest floor microbial community response to tree species and fertilization of regenerating coniferous forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 34: 1426-1435.
Leone, V., Lovreglio, R., Martín, M.P., Martínez, J. and Vilar, L. (2009). Human factors of fire occurrence in the Mediterranean. Pages 149-170 in: E. Chuvieco, editor. 2009. Earth observation of wild-land fires in Mediterranean ecosystems. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-01754-4_11.
Letey, J. (2001). Causes and consequences of fire-induced soil water repellency. Hydrological Processes, 15(15): 2867-2875.
Littell, J., McKenzie, D., Peterson, D.L. and Westerling, A.L. (2009). Climate and wildfire area burned in western US ecoprovinces, 1916-2003. Ecological Applications, 19: 1003-1021.
Liu, W., Xu, W., Han, Y., Wang, C. and Wan, S. (2007). Responses of microbial biomass and respiration of soil to topography, burning, and nitrogen fertilization in a temperate steppe. Biology and Fertility of Soil, 44: 259-268.
Lyon, L.J., Telfer, E.S. and Schreiner, D.S. (2000b). Direct effects of fire and animal responses. In: Smith, J.K., ed. Wild land fire in ecosystems: effects of fire on fauna. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 1. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station; 17–23 pp.
Mabuhay, J.A., Nakagoshi, N. and Horikoshi, T. (2003). Microbial biomass abundance after forest fire in pine forests in Japan. Ecological Research, 18: 431-441.
Mallik, A.U. (2003). Conifer regeneration problems in boreal and temperate forests with ericaceous understory: role of disturbance, seedbed limitation, and keystone species change. Crit. Rev. Plant Sci., 22: 341-366.
Menon, S., Hansen, J., Nazarenko, L. and Luo, Y.F. (2002). Climate effects of black carbon aerosols in China and India. Science, 297: 2250-2253.
Miller, M. (2000). Wildland fire in ecosystems, effects of fire on flora, RMRS-GTR-42. Vol. 2. pp. 275.
Mishra, R.K., Upadhyay, V.P. and Mohanty, R.C. (2008). Vegetation Ecology of the Simplipal Biosphere Reserve, Orissa India. Applied Ecology and Environment Research, 6(2): 89-99.
Mol, T. and Kucukosmanoglu, A. (1997). Forest fires in Turkey. In Proc. XI. World Forestry Congress, Antalya, Turkey.
Moretti, M., Zanini, M. and Conedera, M. (2002). Faunistic and floristic post-fire succession in southern Switzerland: an integrated analysis with regard to fire frequency and time since the last fire. Forest Fire Research and Wildland Fire Safety, Viegas (ed.), ISBN 90-77017-72-0.
Murphy, J.D., Johnson, D.W., Walker, W.W., Miller, R.F., Carroll, E.F. and Blank, R.R. (2006). Wildfire effects on soil nutrients and leaching in a Tahoe Basin Watershed. Journal of Environmental Quality, 35: 479-489.
Murphy, P.G. and Lugo, A.E. (1986a). Ecology of tropical dry forest. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematic, 17: 67-68.
Mustafa, Y. (2009). Forest Fires. 1. Orman yanginlari ile mucadeles sempozyumu, 7-10 January 2009 Antalya, Turkey; 129-130 pp.
Myers, R.L. (1990). Scrub and high pine. In: Myers, R.L. and Ewel, J.J., eds. Ecosystems of Florida. Orlando, FL: University of Central Florida Press; 150–193 pp.
Nabatte, P. and Nyombi, K. (2013). Effects of pine plantation surface fires on soil chemical properties in Uganda. Research Journal of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, 1(7): 10-14.
Nardoto, G.B. and Bustamante, M.M.D.C. (2003). Effects of fire on soil nitrogen dynamics and microbial biomass in Savannas of Central Brazil. Pesq. Agropec. Bras., 38 (8): 955-962.
Narendran, K., Murthy, I.K., Suresh, H.S., Dattaraja, H.S., Ravindranath, N.H. and Sukumar, R. (2001). Non-timber forest product extraction, utilization and valuation: a case study from the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, Southern India. Economic Botany, 55: 528-538.
Neary, D.G., Klopatek, C.C., DeBano, L.F. and Ffolliott, P.F. (1999). Fire effects on belowground sustainability: a review and synthesis. Forest Ecology and Management, 122: 51-71.
Neary, D.G., Ryan, K.C. and DeBano, L.F. (2005). Wildland fire in ecosystem: effects of fire on soils and water. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol.4. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station; 250 pp.
Neff, J., Harden, J. and Gleixner, G. (2005). Fire effects on soil organic matter content, composition, and nutrients in boreal interior Alaska. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 35: 2178-2187.
Neyisci, T. (1985). Antalya doyran yoresi kizilcam (Pinus brutia Ten.) ormanlarinda yanginlarin tarihsel etkileri [Historical role of fire on red pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) forests of Antalya Doyran region], Ormancilik Arastirma Enstitusu Yayinlari, Teknik Rapor Seri No. 29; 67-91 pp.
Niwa, C.G. and Peck, R.W. (2002). Influence of prescribed fire on carabid beetle (Carabidae) and spider (Araneae) assemblages in forest litter in southwestern Oregon. Environmental Entomology, 31(5): 785-796.
Ojima, D.S., Schimel, D.S., Parton, W.J. and Owensby, C.E. (1994). Long and short term effects of fire on nitrogen cycling in tall-grass prairie. Biogeochemistry, 24: 67-84.
Otsuka, S., Sudiana, I.M., Komori, A., Isobe, K., Deguchi, S., Nishiyama, M., Shimizu, H. and Senoo, K. (2008). Community structure of soil bacteria in a tropical rainforest several years after fire. Microbes and Environments, 23(1): 49-56.
Payette, S. and Delwaide, A. (2003). Shift of conifer boreal forest to lichen-heath parkland caused by successive stand disturbances. Ecosystems, 6: 540-550.
Perez-Salicrup, D.R., Sork, V.L. and Putz, F.E. (2001). Liana and trees in a liana forest in Amazonian Bolivia. Biotropica, 33: 34-47.
Pilliod, D.S., Bury R.B., Hyde, E.J., Pearl, C.A. and Corn, P.S. (2003). Fire and amphibians in North America. Forest Ecology and Management, 178: 163–181.
Putz, F.E. (1983). Liana biomass and leaf area of a “tierra firme” forest in the Rio Negro basin, Venezuela. Biotropica, 15: 185-189
Raj, A. and Jhariya, M.K. (2014). Impact of forest fire on the ecosystem and environment. Reader shelf, 10(8): 4-6.
Reinking, D.L. (2005). Fire regimes and avian responses in the central tall-grass prairie. Studies in Avian Biology, 30: 116–126.
Rocha, W., Metcalfe, D.B., Doughty, C.E., Brando, P., Silverio, D., Halladay, K., Nepstad, D.C., Balch, J.K. and Malhi, Y. (2013). Ecosystem productivity and carbon cycling in intact and annually burnt forest at the dry southern limit of the Amazon rainforest (Mato Grosso, Brazil). Plant Ecology and Diversity, Pp. 1-16. DOI: 10.1080/17550874.2013.798368.
Rodgers, W.A., Bennet, S.S.R. and Sawakar, W.B. (1986). Fire and vegetation structure in Sal forests, Dehradun, India. Tropical Ecology, 27(1): 49-61.
Rodriguez, A., Duran, J., Fernandez-Palacios, J.M. and Gallardo, A. (2009). Short-term wildfire effects on the spatial pattern and scale of labile organic-N and inorganic-N and P pools. Forest Ecology and Management, 257: 739-746.
Rutigliano, F.A., De Marco, A., D’ Ascoli, R., Castaldi, S., Gentile, A. and De Santo, A.V. (2007). Impact of fire on fungal abundance and microbial efficiency in C assimilation and mineralization in a Mediterranean maquis soil. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 4: 377-381.
Saha, S. (2002). Anthropogenic fire regime in a central India deciduous forest. Current Science, 82: 1144-1147.
Saha, S. and Howe, H.F. (2003). Species composition and fire in a dry deciduous forest. Ecology, 84(12): 3118–3123.
Sahu, P.K., Sagar, R. and Singh, J.S. (2008). Tropical forest structure and diversity in relation to altitude and disturbance in a Biosphere Reserve in central India. Applied Vegetation Science, 11: 461–470.
Schnitzer, S.A. and Bongers, F. (2002). The ecology of lianas and their role in forests. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 17: 223-230.
Schnitzer, S.A. and Bongers, F. (2011). Increasing liana abundance and biomass in tropical forests: emerging patterns and putative mechanisms. Ecology Letters, 1-10.
Schnitzer, S.A., Bongers, F. and Powers, J. (2012). Understanding the increase in lianas in neotropical forests. In: Symposium (12) “Ecology, Evolution and Sustainable use of Tropical Biodiversity”, 18-22 June, 2012. Bonito Convention Center, Brazil.
Sharma, C.M., Gairola, S., Baduni, N.P., Ghildiyal, S.K. and Suyal, S. (2011). Variation in carbon stocks on different slope aspects in seven major forest types of temperate region of Garhwal Himalaya, India. J. Biosci. 36(4): 701-708.
Sheuyange, A., Oba, G. and Weladji, R.B. (2005). Effects of anthropogenic fire history on savanna vegetation in northeastern Namibia. Journal of Environmental Management, 75: 189–198.
Solomon, S., Qin Manning, D.M., Chen, Z., Marquis, M., Averyt, K.B., Tignor, M. and Miller, H.L. (2007). The physical science basis-contribution of working group I to the fourth assessment report of the inter-governmental panel on climate change, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, U.K., New York, USA.
Sperry, J.H., George, T.L. and Zack, S. (2008). Ecological factors affecting response of dark-eyed juncos to prescribed burning. The Wilson Journal of Ornithology, 120(1): 131–138.
SSSA (2001). Glossary of Soil Science Terms. Soil science society of America. Madison, USA.
Sun, Y., Wu, J., Shao, Y., Zhou, L., Mai, B., Lin, Y. and Fu, S. (2011). Responses of soil microbial communities to prescribed burning in two paired vegetation sites in southern China. Ecological Research, 26: 669-677.
Swallow, M., Quideau, S.A., Mackenzie, M.D. and Kishchuk, B.E. (2009). Microbial community structure and function: the effect of silvicultural burning and topographic variability in northern Alberta. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 41: 770-777.
Thornley, J.H.M. and Cannell, M.G.R. (2004). Long-term effects of fire frequency on carbon storage and productivity of boreal forests: a modeling study. Tree Physiology, 24: 765–773.
Van der Werf, G.R., Randerson, J.T., Collatz, G.J. and Giglio, L. (2003). Carbon emissions from fires in tropical and subtropical ecosystems. Global Change Biology, 9: 547-562.
Vargas, R., Allen, M.F. and Allen, E.B. (2008). Biomass and carbon accumulation in a fire chronosequence of a seasonally dry tropical forest. Global Change Biology, 14: 109-124.
Wade, D.D., Brock, B.L., Brose, P., Grace, J.B., Hoch, G.A. and Patterson, W.A. (2000). Fire in eastern ecosystems. In: Brown, J.K. and Smith, J.K., eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 2. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station; 53–96 pp.
Waldrop, M.P. and Harden, J.W. (2008). Interactive effects of wildfire and permafrost on microbial communities and soil processes in an Alaskan black spruce forest. Global Change Biology, 14: 2591-2602.
Wang, J. and Christopher, S.A. (2006). Mesoscale modeling of Central America smoke transport to the United States: 2. Smoke radiative impact on regional surface energy budget and boundary layer evolution. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 111 pp. D14S92, doi: 10.1029/2005JD006720.
Wang, Q., Zhong, M. and Wang, S. (2012). Meta-analysis on the response of microbial biomass dissolved organic matter, respiration, and N mineralization in mineral soil to fire in forest ecosystems. Forest Ecology and Management, 271: 91-97.
Wang, Y., Flannigan, M. and Anderson, K. (2010). Correlations between forest fires in British Columbia, Canada, and sea surface temperature of the Pacific Ocean. Ecological Model ing, 221: 122-129. doi : 10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2008.12.007.
Waring, R.H. and Running, S.W. (1998). Forest Ecosystems: Analysis at Multiple Scales. Academic Press, San Diego.
Wienk, C.L., Sieg, C.H. and McPherson, G.R. (2004). Evaluating the role of cutting treatments, fire and soil seed banks in an experimental framework in Ponderosa Pine Forest of the Black Hills. South Dakota. Forest Ecol. Manage., 192: 375-393.
Wilson, C.A., Mitchell, R.J., Boring, L.R. and Hendricks, J.J. (2002). Soil nitrogen dynamics in a fire maintained forest ecosystem-results over a 3-year burn interval. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 34: 679-689.
Zhang, Y.M., Wu, N., Zhou, G.Y. and Bao, W.K. (2005). Change in enzyme activities of spruce (Picea balfouriana) forest soil as related to burning in the eastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Applied Soil Ecology, 30: 215-225.
Citation Format
How to Cite
Jhariya, M. K., & Raj, A. (2014). Effects of wildfires on flora, fauna and physico-chemical properties of soil-An overview. Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 6(2), 887-897. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v6i2.550
More Citation Formats:
Section
Research Articles