C. Sarathambal K. Ilamurugu L. Srimathi Priya K. K. Barman


In the context of increasing international concern for food security and environmental quality, the use of bioinoculants like diazotrophs and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) for reducing chemical inputs in agriculture is a potentially important issue. The improvement in agricultural sustainability requires optimal use and management of soil fertility and soil physical properties, where both rely on soil biological processes and soil biodiversity. Biological nitrogen fixation by plant-associated bacteria is eco-friendly and has been effectively exploited for crop plants including legumes. Although associations of rhizobacteria with non-leguminous plants such as grasses have been known for decades, they have been poorly - studied. Weedy grass species normally thrive in adverse conditions and act as potential habitats for the diverse groups of elite bacteria with multiple beneficial characters remains unexplored. A more complete understanding of the diversity and functioning of rhizobacterial microorganisms, especially those that have symbiotic relationships with grass species is of great value for agricultural research and application.


Download data is not yet available.




Agriculture, Bioprospecting, Plant growth, Rhizobacteria, Weeds

Allen, O.N. and Allen, E.K. (1981). The leguminosae: A source book of characteristics, uses and nodulation. The University of Wisconsin Press, Madison.
Alloway, B.J. (2001). Zinc - The vital micronutrient for healthy, high-value crops. International Zinc Association. Brussels, Belgium, pp. 8.
Arun, B., Gopinath, B. and Sharma, S. (2012). Plant growth promoting potential of free-living diazotrophs isolated from rhizosphere of Cassia occidentalis. World J. Microbiol. Biotech., 28: 2849-2857.
Barraquio, W.L., Revilla, L. and Ladha, J.K. (2000). Isolation of endophytic bacteria from wetland rice. Plant Soil, 194, 15–24.
Basak, M.K. and Goyal, S.K. (1975). Studies on tree legumes. I. Nodulation pattern and characterization of the symbiot. Ann. Arid Zone., 14: 367-370.
Belimov, A.A., Safronova, V.I., Sergeyeva, T.A., Egorova, T.N., Matveyeva, V.A., Tsyganov, V.E., Borisov, A.Y., Tikhonovich, I.A., Kluge, C., Preisfeld, A., Dietz K.J. and Stepanok, V.V. (2001). Characterization of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria isolated from polluted soils and containing 1–aminocyclopropane- 1–carboxylate deaminase. Can. J. Microbiol., 47: 642–652.
Berg, G. and Smalla, K. (2009). Plant species and soil type cooperatively shape the structure and function of microbial communities in the rhizosphere. FEMS Microbiol Ecol .,68, 1-13.
Bhandari and Sen. (1979). Agro-ecosystem analysis of the Indian arid zone Indigofera cordifolia as a weed. Agro-ecosystems, 5(3):257-262
Bhromsiri, C. (2009). Use of soil microbial inoculation for improving the effectiveness of vetiver grass and the effect on natural soil microbial ecology. Ph.D. Thesis Chiang Mai University.
Bhromsiri, C. and Bhromsiri, A. (2010). Isolation, screening of growth-promoting activities and diversity of rhizobacteria from Vetiver grass and rice plants. Thai Journal of Agricultural Science, 43(4): 217-230.
Brimecombe, M.J., De Leij, F.A. and Lynch, J.M. (2001). The effects of root exudates on rhizosphere microbial populations. In: The rhizosphere: Biochemistry and organic substances at the soil-plant interface pp. 95-137.
Christie, P., Li, X. and Chen, B.D. (2004). Arbuscular mycorrhizae can depress translocation of zinc to shoot of host plants in soils moderately polluted zinc. Plant Soil, 80: 241-249.
Cibichakravarthy, B., Preetha, R., Sundaram, S.P., Kumar, K. and Balachandar, D. (2011). Diazotrophic diversity in the rhizosphere of two exotic weed plants, Prosopis juliflora and Parthenium hysterophorus. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 11(9): 274-285.
Cleveland, C.C., Townsend, A.R., Schimel, D.S., Fisher, H., Howarth, R.W., Hedin, L.O., Perakis, S.S., Latty, E.F., Von Fischer, J.C., Elseroad, A. and Wasson, M.F. (1999). Global patterns of terrestrial biological nitrogen (N2) fixation in natural ecosystems. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 13: 623-645.
Cocking, E.C. (2005). Intracellular colonization of cereals and other crop plants by nitrogen-fixing bacteria for reduced inputs of synthetic nitrogen fertilizers. In Vitro Cell Dev. Biol., 41, 369–373.
Coutinho, H.L.C., Oliveria, V.M., Lovato, A., Maia, A.H. N., and Manfio, G. (1999). Evaluation of the diversity of rhizobia in Brazilian agricultural soils cultivated with soybeans. Appl. Soil Ecol., 13: 159–167.
Doty, S.L., Oakley, B., Xin, G., Kang, J.W., Singleton, G., Khan, Z., Vajzovic, A. and Staley, J. (2009). Diazotrophic endophytes of native black cottonwood and willow. Symbiosis, 47, 23–33.
Felker, P and Clark, P.R. (1980). Nitrogen fixation (actelyene reduction) and cross inoculation in 12 Prosopis species. Plant and Soil, 57: 177-186
Felker, P. and Bandurski, R.S. (1979). Uses and potential uses of leguminous trees for minimal energy input agriculture, Econ. Bot., 33: 172-184.
Fickett, N.D., Boerboom, C.M. and Stoltenberg, D.E. (2013). Predicted corn yield loss due to weed competition prior to postemergence herbicide application on Wisconsin farms. Weed Technology, 27(1): 54-62.
Glick, B.R. (1995). The enhancement of plant growth by free living bacteria. Can. J. Microbiol., 41:109–117
Glick, B.R., Penrose, D.M. and Li, J. (1998). A model for the lowering of plant ethylene concentrations by plant growth-promoting bacteria. J. Theor. Biol., 190: 63– 68.
Gupta, A., Saxena, A.K., Murali, G. and Tilak, K.V.B.R. (2003). Effects of co-inoculation of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and Bradyrhizobium sp. on growth and yield of greengram (Vigna radiata (L) Wilczek). Trop. Agric., 80: 28-35.
Harari, A., Kigel, J. and Okon, Y. (1988). Involvement of IAA in the interaction between Azospirillum brasilense and Panicum miliaceum roots. Plant Soil, 110: 275– 282.
Honma, M. and Shimomura, T. (1971). Metabolism of 1-aminocyclopropane -1- carboxylic acid. Agrl. Biol. Chem., 42: 1825-1831.
Howieson, J.G. (2005). Application of rhizobial inoculants to Australian agriculture – Foreword. Aust. J. Exp. Agric., 45:12-15.
Jackson, M.B. (1991). Ethylene in root growth and development. In: Matoo, A.K. and J.C. Suttle (Eds.). The Plant Hormone Ethylene, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla. pp. 159–181.
Jing, Y.D., He , Z.L. and Yang, X.E. (2007). Role of soil rhizobacteria in phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils. J. Zhejiang Univ. Sci., 8: 192-207.
Malik, K.A., Bilal, R., Mezhnez, S.G., Rasul, M.S., Mirza and Ali, S. (1997). Association of nitrogen-fixing, plant -growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) with kallar grass and rice. Plant Soil, 194: 37-44.
Minorsky, P.V. (2008). On the inside. Plant Physiol., 146, 323–324.
Norris, D.O. (1958). Lime in relation to the nodulation of tropical legumes. In: Nutrition of the legumes, (Ed.) E.G. Hallsworth, New York, Academic Press Inc., pp. 164–182.
Olivares, F.L., Baldani, V.L.D., Reis, V.M., Baldani, J.I. and Dobereiner, J. (1996). Occurrence of the endophytic diazotrophs Herbaspirillum spp. in roots, stems and leaves predominantly of graminae. Biol. Fertil. Soil., 21: 197–200.
Peterson, L.A. and Peterson, R.T. (1999). A Field Guide to Edible Wild Plants: Eastern and central North America.Houghton-Mifflin.pp.345.
Rundel, P.W., Nilsen, E.T., Sharifi, M.R., Virginia, R.A., Jarrel, W.M., Kohl, D.H. and Shearer, G.B. (1982). Seasonal dynamics of nitrogen cycling for a Prosopis woodland in the Sonoran desert. Plant Soil, 67: 343–353.
Sarathambal, C. and Ilamurugu, K. (2013). Saline tolerant plant growth promoting diazotrophs from rhizosphere of bermuda grass and their effect on rice. Indian Journal of Weed Science, 45(2): 80–85
Sarathambal, C., Ilamurugu, K. and Srimathi Priya, L. (2013). Isolation of elite diazotrophic bacterial isolates from Cyanodon dactylon rhizosphere of saline soils. Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment, 17 (12):70-77.
Sarathambal, C. (2013). Assessment of functional microbial diversity in the rhizosphere of selected Semi-arid tropical grasses. Ph.D thesis. Tamil Nadu agricultural University,Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu
Saravanan.V.S., Madhaiyan, M. and Thangaraju, M. (2007). Solubilisation of zinc compounds by the diazotrophicus, plant growth promoting bacterium Gluconoacetobacter diazotrophicus. Chemosphere, 66: 1794-1798.
Shearer, G., Kohl, D.H., Virginia, R.A., Bryan, B.A., Skeeters, J.L., Nilsen, E.T., Sharifi, M.R. and Rundel, P.W. (1983). Estimates of N2-fixation from variation in the natural abundance of 15N in Sonoran desert ecosystems, Oecologia., 56: 365-373.
Spahillari, M., Hammer, K., Gladis, T. and Diederichsen, A. (1999). Weeds as a part of agrobiodiversity. Agriculture, 28:227-232.
Sturz, A.V., Matheson, B.G., Arsenault, W., Kimpinski, J. and Christie, B.R. (2001). Weeds as a source of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in agricultural soils. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 47(11): 1013-1024,
Subba Rao, N.S., Sen, A.N. and Dadarwal, K.R. (1982). Rhizobium research in India. In: Review of soil research in India, Part I, 12th International congress of soil science held at Indian Society of Soil Science, New Delhi, pp. 211-224.
Vance, C.P. (2001). Symbiotic nitrogen fixation and phosphorus acquisition: plant nutrition in a world of declining renewable resources. Plant Physiol., 127: 390-397.
Venkateswarlu, B., Balloli, S.S. and Ramakrishna, Y.S. (2007). Organic farming in rainfed Agriculture. Central research institute for dry land agriculture, Hyderabad, pp 88.
Virgina, R.A., Jarrel, W.M., Kohl, D.H. and Shearer, G.B. (1981). Symbiotic nitrogen fixation in a Prosopis (Leguminosae) dominant desert ecosystem. In: Current Perspectives in Nitrogen Fixation. (Eds.) A.H. Gibson and W.E. Newton, Canberra Aust. Acad. Science. pp. 483.
Walker, B.H. (1992). Biodiversity and ecological redundancy. Conserv. Biol., 6:18-23
Whipps, J.M. (2001). Microbial interactions and biocontrol in the rhizosphere. J. Exper. Bot., 52:487-511.
Citation Format
How to Cite
Sarathambal, C., Ilamurugu, K., Priya, L. S., & Barman, K. K. (2014). A review on weeds as source of novel plant growth promoting microbes for crop improvement. Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 6(2), 880-886. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v6i2.549
More Citation Formats:
Research Articles