India possesses a distinct identity, not only because of its geography, history and culture, but also because of the great diversity of its natural ecosystems. The panorama of Indian biological diversity is much wider, as it comes under the twelve mega biodiverse (Hot-spot) centers of the world. It contains a great wealth of biological diversity in its forests, its wetlands and in its marine areas which are distributed all over the country. This richness is shown in absolute numbers of species and the proportion they represent of the world total. The great Himalayan region has peculiar identity in the perspective of its unique biogeography. It supports a large number of glaciers, lakes, rivers, flora and fauna due to its variable climate. It has a profound effect on the climate of the subcontinent. But due to anthropogenic activities the global climate has changed since last few decades. The climate of the subcontinent has also adversely affected the biological resources of the country along with that of the Himalayan region. The present paper discusses the various causes responsible for melting and shrinkage of glaciers, decreasing water flow in the major rivers, increasing pressure of extinction of the ecological wealth of the country. It also talks about the control measures and various management steps which can be taken, with special reference to the Himalayan region.
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