Water scarcity is one of the main consequences of changing climate which adversely affects the plant growth and productivity. Enhanced root development results in increased surface area of active absorption for water and nutrient uptake which helps in tolerating abiotic stresses including drought in plants. Trichoderma is well known for its biocontrol and growth promontory effect in plants in addition to alleviate abiotic stress. In our study, thirty isolates of Trichoderma were grown on sterilized cow dung at different moisture content ranges from 5 to 30 percent to investigate their ability to grow and multiply under water stress condition. Mustard plants were grown under glass house condition by treating seeds with selected isolates of Trichoderma subjected to water stress subsequently. All isolates of Trichoderma grew upto 20% moisture whereas only eleven isolates exhibited growth at 10% moisture. Isolate PB23 was only isolate which was able to grow and resulted in 1.0 x109 cfu/g air dried cow dung even at 5% moisture content and induced the tolerance of mustard plants under water stress conditions when applied as seed treatment before sowing.
Mycorrhiza, PGPF, Tensiometer, Trichoderma, Water stress
Bailey, B.A., Bae, H., Strem, M.D., Roberts, D.P., Thomas S.E., Samuels, G.J., Choi, I.Y. and Holmes, K.A. (2006). Fungal and plant gene expression during the colonization of cacao seedling by endophytic isolates of four Trichoderma species. Planta, 224: 1449-1464.
Barea, J.M., AzcÃ³n, R. and AzcÃ³n-Aguilar, C. (2002). Mycorrhizosphere interactions to improve plant fitness and soil quality. Ant. Leeuw., 8: 343-35.
Daniel, L.A.E., Praveen Kumar G., Desai, S. and Mir Hassan, A.S.K. (2011). In-vitro Characterization of Trichoderma viride for Abiotic Stress Tolerance and Field Evaluation against Root Rot Disease in Vigna mungo L. J. Biofertil. Biopestici., 2 (3):1-5.
Doni, F., Al-Shorgani, N.K.N., Tibin, E.M.M., Abuelhassan, N.N., Anizan, I., Che-Radziah, C.M.Z. and Wan Mohtar, W.Y. (2013). Microbial involvement in growth of paddy. Curr. Res. J. Biol. Sci., 5(6):285â€“290.
Doni, F., Isahak, A., Zain, C.R.C.M. and Yusoff, W.M.W. (2014). Physiological and growth response of rice plants (Oryza sativa L.) to Trichoderma spp. inoculants. AMB Express, 4:45.
Farahani, A., Lebaschi, H., Hussein, M., Hussein, S.A., Reza, V.A. and Jahanfar, D. (2008). Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, different levels of phosphorus and drought stress on water use efficiency, relative water content and proline accumulation rate of Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.). Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 2(6): 125-131.
Ghahfarokhy, M.R., Goltapeh, E.M., Purjam, E., Pakdaman, B. S., Modarres Sanavy, S.A.M. and Varma, A. (2011). Potential of mycorrhiza-like fungi and Trichoderma species in biocontrol of Take-all Disease of wheat under greenhouse condition. Journal of Agricultural Technology, 7(1): 185-195.
Gusain, Y.S., Singh, U.S. and Sharma, A.K. (2014). Enhance activity of stress related enzymes in rice (Oryza sativa L.) induced by plant growth promoting fungi under drought stress. Afr. J. Agric. Res., 9 (19): 1430-1434.
Hoyos-Carvajal, L., Orduz, S. and Bissett, J. (2009). Growth stimulation in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) by Trichoderma. Biological Control, 51.409 416
Hyakumachi, M. and Kubota, M. (2004). Fungi as plant growth promoter and disease suppressor. In: Fungal Biotechnology in Agricultural, Food, and Environmental Applications (ed. K.A. Dilip). New York Basel, pp: 101-110.
KAU (2002). Package of practices recommendations: crops. Twelfth Edition. Directorate of Extension, Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur, 278p.
Mariola, R.C., RodrÃguez, O.G., BenÃtez, T., Sonia S., Rey, M., Llobell, A. and Jarana1, J.D. (2007). Microscopic and transcriptome analyses of early colonization of tomato roots by T. harzianum. International Microbiology, 10: 19â€“27.
Mastouri, F., BjÃ¶rkman, T. and Harman, G.E. (2010). Seed treatment with Trichoderma harzianum alleviates biotic, abiotic and physiological stresses in germinating seeds and seedlings. Phytopathology, 100(11): 1213-1221.
Mishra, A. and Salokhe, V. M. (2011). Rice growth and physiological responses to SRI water management and implications for crop productivity. Paddy Water Environ., 9:41â€“52.
Naher, U. A., R. Othman and Panhwar, Q.A. (2013). Beneficial effects of mycorrhizal association for crop production in the tropics - a review. Int. J. Agric. Biol., 15: 1021â€’1028.
Price, A.H., Steele, K.A., Moore, B.J., Barraclough, P.B. and Clark, L.J. (2000). A combined RFLP and AFLP linkage map of upland rice (Oryza sativa L.) used to identify QTLs for root-penetration ability. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 100: 49â€“56.
Rawat. L., Singh, Y., Shukla, N. and Kumar, J. (2011). Alleviation of the adverse effects of salinity stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by seed biopriming with salinity tolerant isolates of Trichoderma harzianum. Plant Soil, 347(1): 387-400.
Shukla, N., Awasthi, R.P., Rawat, L. and Kumar, J. (2012). Biochemical and physiological responses of rice (Oryza sativa L.) as influenced by Trichoderma harzianum under drought stress. Plant Physiol Biochem., 54:78-88.
Smith, S. E. and Read, D. J. (2008). Mycorrhizal symbiosis, 3rd edn. Academic, London.
Wu, T., Kabir, Z. and Koide, R.T. (2005). A possible role for saprotrophic microfungi in the N nutrition of ectomycorrhyzal Pinus resinosa, Soil Biol. Biochem., 37: 965â€“975.
Zaidi, N.W. and Singh, U.S. (2004). Use of farmyard manure for mass multiplication and delivery of biocontrol agents, Trichoderma harzianum and Pseudomonas fluorescens. Asian Agri-History, 52: 165-172.
This work is licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) © Author (s)