##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

Chakresh Pathak A. K. Chopra Sachin Srivastava Deepika Thakur

Abstract

The present study observed the accumulation of heavy metals in Brassica juncea irrigated with paper mill effluent (PME) and control Bore well water (BWW). The soil was treated to five rates of effluents viz. 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100 ml/Kg soil. It was revealed 100% PME irrigation of soil increased Pb (+46.44%), Cr (+83.21%), Ni (+38.43%) and Cd (+78.92%). The enrichment factor (Ef) for Cr and Cd showed moderate enrichment with 10% to 75% PME irrigated soil, except Cr (5.96) which showed significant enrichment with 100% PME irrigated soil. Ef value for Pb and Ni showed deficiency to mineral enrichment with different concentrations of PME irrigated soil. The maximum accumulation of Pb (42.66±2.05 mg/kg), Cr (39.80±5.95 mg/kg), Ni (88.64±11.29 mg/kg) and Cd (5.85±0.29 mg/kg) were recorded in leaves of B. juncea, while that of Pb (43.85±3.46 mg/kg), Cr (48.59±3.81 mg/kg), Cd (6.74±1.22 mg/kg) with 100% and Ni (74.93±2.54 mg/kg) were recorded with 75% PME after 60 days in roots of the B. juncea. Ef value was found maximum for Cr (5.08) in leaves and for Pb (6.64) in roots, while the Translocation factor (Tf) was found maximum for Pb (2.45) in root of the crop irrigated with PME. The use of PME with proper dilution and with the metallic concentrations in permissible limit can be used as biofertigant for irrigation of B. juncea.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

Keywords

Brassica juncea, Heavymetals, Enrichment factor, Translocation factor

References
AOAC (1990) Official methods of Analyses. Method No. 975.03 metal in plants, AAS method, 15th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Inc., Arlington, p 42.
APHA (2005). Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. American Public Health Association, 21st edition, Washington, DC.pp 1368.
Arora,M., Kiran, B., Rani, A., Rani, S., Kaur, B. and Mittal, M. (2008). Heavy metal accumulation in vegetables irrigated with water from different sources. Food Chemistry, 111 (4): 811-815.
Awashthi, S. K. (2000). Prevention of Food Adulteration Act no. 37 of 1954. Central and State rules as amended for 1999 (3rd ed.). New Delhi: Ashoka Law House.
Bharagava, R.N., Chandra, R. and Rai, V. (2008). Phytoextraction of trace elements and physiological changes in Indian mustard plants (Brassica nigra L.) grown in post methanated distillery effluent (PMDE) irrigated soil. Bioresour. Technol., 99: 8316–8324.
Chandra, R., Bhargava, R.N., Yadav, S. and Mohan, D. (2009). Accumulation and distribution of toxic metals in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and Indian mustard (Brassica campestris L.) irrigated with distillery and tannery effluents. J. Hazard. Mater., 162(2-3):1514-1521.
Chaturvedi, R. K. and Sankar, K. (2006). Laboratory manual for the physico-chemical analysis of soil, water and plant. Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun. pp. 97.
Chopra, A. K. and Pathak, Chakresh (2012). Bioaccumulation and translocation efficiency of heavy metals in vegetables grown on long-term wastewater irrigated soil near Bindal river, Dehradun. Agric Res., DOI 10.1007/s40003-012-0016-8.
Chopra, A.K., Pathak, C. and Prasad G. (2009). Scenario of heavy metal contamination in agricultural soil and its management. J. Appl. & Nat. Sci., 1(1): 99-108.
Codex Alimentarious Commission (1984). Contaminants, Joint FAO/WHO Food standards Program (Vol. XVII, 1st ed.). Geneva: Codex Alimentarious.
Cui, Y.J., Zhu, Y.G., Zhai, R.H., Chen, D.Y., Huang, Y.Z., Qui, Y., Liang, J.Z. (2004). Transfer of metals from near a smelter in Nanning, China. Environ. Int. 30, 785-791.
Gupta, N., Khan, D.K. and Santra, S.C. (2008) An assessment of heavy metal contamination in vegetables grown in wastewater-irrigated areas of Titagarh, West Bengal, India. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol., 80:115–118.
Gupta., S, Satpati, S., Nayek, S. and Garai, D. (2010) Effect of wastewater irrigation on vegetables in relation to bioaccumulation of heavy metals and biochemical changes. Environ Monit Assess., 165: 169–177.
Harmanescu, M., Maria Alda, L., Maria Bordean, D., Gogoasa, I. and Gergen, I. (2011). Heavy metals health risk assessment for population via consumption of vegetables grown in old mining area; a case study: Banat County, Romania. Chemistry Central Journal, 5:64.
Hati, K.M., Biswas, A.K., Bandyopadhyay, K.K. and Misra, A.K. (2007). Soil properties and crop yields on a vertisol in India with application of distillery effluent. Soil Till. Res., 92 (1-2): 60-68.
Ismail, B.S., Farihah, K. and Khairiah, J. (2005) Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in vegetables from selected agricultural areas. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 74:320–327.
Kabata-Pendias, A. and Pendias, H. (1992). Trace elements in soil and plants (2nd ed., p. 365). Boca Raton: CRC.
Kumar, V. and Chopra, A. K. (2012). Fertigation effect of distillery effluent on agronomical practices of Trigonella foenum- graecum L. (Fenugreek). Environ. Monit. Assess., 184:1207-1219.
Kumar, V. and Chopra, A. K. (2010). Influence of sugar mill effluent on physico-chemical characteristics of soil at Haridwar (Uttarakhand), India Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 2 (2): 269-279.
Kumar, V.(2010). Effect of industrial effluent irrigation on agronomical characteristics of two leguminous crops, Phaseolus vulgaris (L.) and Vigna radiate (L.),” Ph.D.
Thesis, Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar. Kumar, V., Chopra, A.K., Pathak, C. and Pathak, S. (2010). Agro-potentiality of paper mill effluent on the characteristics of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Fenugreek). New York Science Journal, 3(5): 68-77.
Liss, S.N., Bicho, P.A. and Saddler, J.N. (1997). Microbiology and biodegradation of resin acids in pulp mill effluents: a minireview. Can. J. Microbiol., 43(7):599-611.
Malla, L. and Mohanty, B. K. (2005). Effect of paper mill effluent on germination of green Gram (Ph Roxb.) and growth behaviour of it’s seedlings. Journal of Environmental Biology, 26 (2) : 379- 382.
Mapanda, F., Mangwayana, E. N., Nyamangara, J. and Giller, K. E. (2005). The effect of long-term irrigation using waste water on heavy metal contents of soils under vegetables in Harare, Zimbabwe. Agriculture Ecosystem and Environment, 107 (2-3): 151-165.
Pathak, C., Chopra, A. K. and Srivastava, S. (2013). Accumulation of heavy metals in Spinacia oleracea irrigated with paper mill effluent and sewage. Environ Monit Assess., 185:7343–7352.
Rath, P., Pradhan, G. and Misra, M.K. (2011). Effect of distillery spent wash (DSW) and fertilizer on growth and chlorophyll content of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) plant. Recent Res. Sci. Technol., 3(4):169-176.
Sharma, R. K., Agrawal, M. and Marshall, F. M. (2007). Heavy Metals Contamination of Soil and Vegetables in Suburban Areas of Varanasi, India. Ecotoxicology & Environmental Safety, 66 (2): 258-266.
Singh, A., Sharma, R.K., Agrawal, M., Marshall, F.M. (2010). Risk assessment of heavy metal toxicity through contaminated vegetables from waste water irrigated area of Varanasi, India. Tropical Ecology, 51(2S):375-387.
Singh, P. (2007). Sequential anaerobic and aerobic treatment of pulp and paper mill effluent in pilot scale bioreactor. Journal of Environmental Biology, 28(1) 77-82.
Singh, S. and Kumar, M. (2006). Heavy metal load of soil, water and vegetables in periurban Delhi. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 120 (1-3): 71-79.
Sinha, S., Singh, S. and Mallick. S. (2008). Comparative growth response of two varieties of Vigna radiata L. (var. PDM 54 and var. NM 1) grown on different tannery sludge applications: effects of treated wastewater and ground water used for irrigation. Environment Geochemistry & Health 30: 407–422.
Smical ,A. Vasile, H., Oros, V., Jozsef J. and Elena, P. (2008). Studies of Transfer and Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals from soil into lettuce. Environmental Engineering and Management Journal, 7: 609-615.
Tewari, P.K., Batra, V.S. and Balakrishnan, M. (2009). Efficient water use in industries: Cases from the Indian agro-based pulp and paper mills. Journal of Environmental Management, 90: 265-273.
Thompson, G., Swain, J., Kay M. and Forster, C.F. (2001). The treatment of pulp and paper-mill effluent: A review. Biores. Technol., 77 (3): 275-286.
Yang, X.E., Baligar, V.C., Foster, J.C. and Martens, D.C. (1997). Accumulation and transport of nickel in relation to organic acids in rye grass and maize grown with different nickel levels. Plant Soil, 196 :271–276.
Zheng, N., Wang, Q., Zhang, X., Zheng, D., Zhang, Z. and Znang, S. (2007). Population health risk due to dietary intake of heavy metals in the industrial area of Huludao City, China. Sci. Total Environ., 387: 96–104.
Citation Format
How to Cite
Pathak, C., Chopra, A. K., Srivastava, S., & Thakur, D. (2013). Translocation and enrichment of heavy metals in Brassica juncea grown in Paper mill effluent irrigated soil. Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 5(2), 510-515. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v5i2.361
More Citation Formats:
Section
Research Articles