G. Sivani D.C. Reddy M. Bhaskar


The effect of varying levels of Nymphaea leaf meal on the growth and survival of common carp, Cyprinus carpio was investigated. In a feeding trail of 45 days, three experimental diets containing nymphaea leaf meal at 300, 400 and 500g kg-1 level of incorporation were fed to triplicate groups of 10 fish each. The conventional feed used in India, consisting of a mixture of groundnut oil cake and rice bran in 1:1 ratio served as the control. Best growth in terms of weight gain (35.2g), specific growth rate (4.67), protein efficiency ratio (PER) (2.7), feed conversion ratio (FCR) (2.5) was obtained for the test diet with 400g kg-1 nymphaea meal inclusion level. However no statistical difference was observed between the three experimental diets. Digestive enzyme activity and digestibility studies also indicated the same pattern. Thus the results of the present study indicate that a diet of 300g kg-1 overall protein with nymphaea meal included at 400g kg-1 can elicit good growth response and survival in common carp.


Download data is not yet available.




Cyprinus carpio, Digestibility, Enzyme activity, Growth, Nymphaea meal

AOAC (1975). Official methods of analysis. Association of Analytical Chemists. Washington. DC.
Banarjee, S.M. (1967). Water quality and soil conditions of fish ponds in some states of India in relation to fish production. Indian J. Fish., 14, 115-125.
Bernfeld, P. (1955). Amylase á and â, In: Methods in Enzymology, Vol. I (ed. By S.P. Colowick & N.O. Kaplan). P149. Academic press, New York.
Bier, M. (1962). Lipases. In: Methods in Enzymology, Vol. I (Ed. By S.P. Colowick & N.O. Kaplan). Academic press, New York. pp. 627-642.
Boyd, D.C. (1979). Water quality, In: Warm water fish ponds, Auburn University, Agricultural experimental station. Alabama. pp.359.
Dadgar, S., Saad,C.R., Kamarudin, M.S., Alimon, A.R., Harmin, S., Satar, M.K.A., Arshad, A and Nafisi, M. (2009). Partial or total replacement of soybean meal with Iranian cottonseed meal in diets for rainbow trout (Oncorhynkus mykiss). Res. J. of Fish and Hydrobiologia., 4 (1):22-28.
De Silva, S.S. (1985) Performance of Oreochromis niloticus(L) fry maintained on mixed feeding schedules of different protein content. Aquaculture and Fisheries Management, 16, 331 – 340.
Falge, R., Schpanof, L. and Jurss, K. (1978) Amylase, esterase and protease activity in the intestine content of rainbow trout salmo gairdneri ricch after feeding with feed containing different amounts of starch and protein. J. Ichthyol., 48, 283-287.
Fischer, Z. (1972). The elements of energy balance in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) part III. Assimibility of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids by fishseed with plant and animal food. Pols. Arch. Hydrobiologia, 19, 83-95.
Furukawa, A and Tsukuhara, H. (1957). On the acid digestion method for the determination of chromic oxide as an index substance in the study of digestibility of fish feed. Bull. Jap. Soc. Sci. Fish. 32: 502-506.
Fynn-Aikins,K., Silas, S.O., Hung,S.S.O. and Huges, S.G. (1992) Effects of feeding a fish h igh level D-glucose on liver function in juvenile white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus). Fish. Phy. & Bioch.,12, 317-325.
Gut, D., Liu, W., Shao, X. and Xu, W. (2010). Effects of different dietary levels of cotton seed meal protein hydrolysate on growth, digestibility, body composition and serum biochemical indices in crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio). Anim. Feed Sci. and Technol., 156: 112-120.
Hastings, W.H. (1976). Fish nutrition and fish feed manufacture. FAO Technical Conf. on Aquaculture, Kyoto, Japan, FIR: AQ/conf/76/R. 23:13.
Hepher, B. (1988). Nutrition of pond fishes. Cambridge University press, Cambridge.
Kunitz, M. (1947). Crystalline trypsin inhibitor II. General properties. Journal of General Physiology, 30: 297-310.
Latif, K.A., Alam, M.T., Sayeed, M.A., Hussain, M.A., Sultana, S. and Hossain, M.A. (2008). Comparative study on the effects of low cost oil seed cakes and fish meal as dietary protein sources for Labeo rohita (Hamilton) fingerlings. Univ. J. Zool. Rajashahi. Univ., 27, 25-30.
Lim, S.J. and Lee, K.J.,(2008). Supplemental iron and phosphorus increase dietary inclusion of cotton seed and soybean meal in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), Aquaculture. Nutr., 14. 423-430.
Lowry, C.H. , Rosebrough, N.J., Farr, A.L. and Randall, R.J. (1951). Protein measurement with the Folin-Phenol reagent. J. Biol. Chem., 193: 265-275.
Patra, S.S., Mukhopadhya, A.K. and Saha, C. (2000). Effect of Nymphoides leaf meal incorporated diets on growth and body composition in Cirrhinus mrigala . In: The fifth Indian fisheries forum (pp 77-79), India, Asian Fisheries Society, Indian branch, Mangalore.
Pavan Kumar, B., Chamundeswari Devi, B., Ravindrakumar Reddy, D. and Balasubramanian, A. (2011). Effect of cottonseed meal inclusion in diets of Catla catla (Hamilton, 1822). Continental J. Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 5 (3): 14-18.
Pearson, D. (1976). The chemical analysis of Food. Churchill, London.
Ramachandran, S. and Ray, A.K. (2007). Nutritional evaluation of fermented black gram (Phase olus mango) seed meal in compound diets for rohu Labeo rohita (Hamilton) fingerlings. J. Appl. Ichthyol., 23., 74-7.
Snedecor, G.W and Cochran, W.G. (1968). Statistical methods. Oxford and IBH publishing Co., Calcutta, 593.
Steffens, W. (1981) Protein utilization of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) and carp (Cyprinus carpio) : A brief review, Aquaculture, 23 , 337-345.
Tahir, M.Z.A., ahmed, I., Mateen, A., Ashraf, M., Naqvi, Z.H. and Ali, H. (2008). Studies on partial replacement of fish meal with oil seeds meal in the diet of major carps. Int. J. Agr. Biol., 10 (4): 455-458.
Tan, Y.T., (1970). Composition and nutritive value of some grasses, plants, and aquatic weeds tested as diets, J. Fish.Biol., 2,253-257.
Teshima, S. and Kashiwada, K. (1967). Studies on the production of B vitamins by intestinal bacteria of fish. III. Isolation of vitamin B12 synthesizing bacteria and their bacteriological properties. Bull. Jap. Soc. Sci. Fish., 33, 979-83.
Teshima, S. and Kashiwada, K. (1969). Studies on the production of B vitamins by intestinal bacteria of fish. IV. Production of nicotinic acid by intestinal bacteria of carp. Mem. Fac. Fish, Kagoshima Univ., 18, 87 – 91.
Citation Format
How to Cite
Sivani, G., Reddy, D., & Bhaskar, M. (2013). Effect of Nymphaea meal incorporated diets on growth, feed efficiency and body composition in fingerlings of Cyprinus carpio L. Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 5(1), 5-9. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v5i1.272
More Citation Formats:
Research Articles