##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

C. Ravikumar M. Ganapathy A. Karthikeyan P. Senthilvalavan R. Manivannan

Abstract

Climate change is an inevitable ruling issue caused by the increasing concentration of greenhouse gases (GHG’s) in the atmosphere worldwide. It will have a considerable impact on agriculture and its related fields like live stocks and fisheries. In India, the main sectors contributing to these emissions are industry, agriculture and waste, with a total emission of 334 MT CO2 eq. Besides, the major sources in agriculture are enteric fermentation (63.4%), rice cultivation (20.9%), agricultural soils (13.0%), manure management (2.4%) and on-field burning is the crop residue (2.0%). Thus, the crop productivity sector (rice cultivation, soil and field burning of crop residues) contributes 35.9% to the total emission from agriculture. Therefore, reducing GHG emissions and enhancing the C sequestration in soil and biomass has become challenging. However, the total GHG’s emission from all sectors of the country has decreased from 33% in 1970 to 18% in 2010. Cutting off GHGs emission from agriculture can be achieved by sequestering C and reducing methane emissions(CH4) and carbon dioxide(CO2) through various soil and crop management strategies. Integrated nutrient management (INM) practice ensures the Soil –plant –atmospheric continuum (SPAC) in a  promising way, reducing the GHGs emission by sequestering more carbon to soil than emissions. A studious prominent INM solution can be identified to develop a mitigation strategy that helps in climate change adaptation and sustains soil health through soil carbon sequestration.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

Keywords

CO2, CH4, Carbon sequestration, Climate change, Integrated nutrition management

References
Abao, Jr. E. B., Bronson, K.F.,Wassmann, R. and Singh, U.(2000). Simultaneous records of methane and nitrous oxide emissions in rice-based cropping systems under rainfed conditions. Nut. Cycl. Agroecosys.,58, 131–39.
Abbas, H. H., Ali, M. E., Ghazal, F. M. and El-Gaml. N. M. (2015). Impact of Cynobacteria inoculation on rice (Oryza sativa) yield cultivated in saline soil. J. Am. Sci., 11 (2),13-19.
Abro, S.A., Tian, X.H., You, D.H. and Wang, X. D. (2011). Emission of carbon dioxide influenced by nitrogen and water levels from soil incubated straw. Pl. Soil Environ., 57(6), 295-300.
Adhya, T. K., Bharati, K., Mohanty, S. R., Ramakrishnan, B., Rao, V. R., Sethunathan, N. and Wassmann, R. (2000). Methane emission from rice fields at Cuttack, India. Nutr. Cycl. Agroecosyst., 58, 95–105.
Adhya, T.K., Rath, A.K., Gupta, P.K., Rao, V.R., Das, A.N. Parida, K.M., Parasha, D. C. and Sethunathan, D. (1994). Methane emission from flooded rice fields under irrigated condition, Biol. Fertil. Soil, 18, 245-248.
Badar, R. and Qureshi, S.A. (2014). Composted Rice Husk Improves the Growth and Biochemical Parameters of Sunflower Plants. Journal of Botany, 2014, 6. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/427648
Bao, Q, Huang, Y, Wang, F, Nie, S, Nicol, GW, Yao, H, Ding, L. (2016). Effect of nitrogen fertilizer and/or rice straw amendment on methanogenic archaeal communities and methane production from a rice paddy soil. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 100(13), 5989–5998. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10. 1007/s00253-016-7377-z.
Bastida, F., Moreno, J.L., Hernandez, T. and Garc?a (2006). Microbiological degradation index of soils in a semiarid climate. Soil Biol. Biochem., 38, 3463-3473.
Bhatia A, Aggarwal P.K, Jain, N. and Pathak, H. (2012) Greenhousegas emission from rice and wheat-growing areas in India: Spatial analysis and upscaling. Greenhouse Gas Sci. Technol., 2,115-125
Bhatia, A., Jain, N. and Pathak, H. (2013) Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from Indian rice paddies, agricultural soils and crop residue burning Greenhouse Gas. Sci. Technol., 3, 196- 211.
Bodelier, P.L.E. and Laanbroek, H.J. (2004). Nitrogen as a regulatory factor of methane oxidation in soils and sediments. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol., 47: 265–277.
Chen, D, Li, Y,Wang, C, Fu, X, Liu, X, Shen, J,Wang, Y, Xiao, R, Liu, DL,Wu, J. (2017). Measurement and modeling of nitrous and nitric oxide emissions from a tea field in subtropical central China. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems107(2), 157–173. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s107 05-017-9826-1.
Debnath, G., Jain, M.C., Kumar, S., Sarkar, K. and Sinha. S.K. (1996). Methane emission from rice fields amended with biogas slurry and farm yard manure. Climate Ch.,33: 97-109.
Dise, N.B., and Verry, E.S. (2001). Suppression of peat land methane emission by cumulative sulfate deposition in simulated acid rain. Bio-geochemistry, 53: 143-160.
Dubey, S.K. (2005). Microbial ecology of methane emission in rice agroecosystem: A review. Appl. Ecol. Environ. Res., 3: 1–27.
Franzluebbers, A.J. (2010) Achieving soil organic carbon sequestration with conservation agricultural systems in the southeastern United States. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 74: 347-357.
Ge, X, Cao, Y, Zhou, B, Xiao, W, Tian, X, Li, MH. (2020). Combined application of biochar and N increased temperature sensitivity of soil respiration but still decreased the soil CO2 emissions in moso bamboo plantations. Science of the Total Environment 730: 139003. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv. 2020.139003.
Ghosh, S., Wilson, B., Ghoshal, S., Senapati, N. and Mandal, B. (2012). Organic amendments influence soil quality and carbon sequestration in the Indo-Gangetic plains of India. Agric, Ecosystems and Environ., 156,134-141.
Gwon, HS, Khan, MI,Yoon, YE, Lee, YB, Kim, PJ, Hwang, HY. (2019). Unexpected higher decomposition of soil organic matter during cold fallow season in temperate rice paddy. Soil & Tillage Research,192, 250–257. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2018.11.009.
Held, I.M., Delworth, T.L., Lu, J.,Findell, K.L. and Knutson, T.R. (2005). Simulation of Sahel drought in the 20th and 21st centuries. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 102:17891–17896.
Hoang, TTH, Do, DT, Tran, TTG, Ho, TD, Rehman, HU.2019. Incorporation of rice straw mitigates CH4 and N2O emissions in water saving paddy fields of Central Vietnam. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science, 65(1), 113–124. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/ 03650340.201 8.1487553.
Hossain, M. (2009). Nutrient and residue management for improving productivity and N use efficiency of rice-wheat- mungbean systems in Bangladesh. In: TheProceedings of the International Plant Nutrition Colloquium XVI. Uinversity of California, Davis, CA, USA.
Hossain, M. B. (2018). Effects of fresh rice straw and water levels on CO2-C gas emission, soil organic carbon content and rice production. J. Bio.Sci., 7(1): 45-53.
Inubushi, K., Cheng, W.G. Aonuma, S., Hoque, M.M., Kobayashi, K., Miura, S., Kim, H.Y. and Okada, M. (2003). Effects of free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) on CH4 emission from a rice paddy field. Global Change Biol., 9, 1458–1464.
IPCC (2001): Climate change 2001. The Scientific Basis. IPCC Third Assessment Report, IPCC Summary for Policy Makers. http://www.ipcc.ch/pub/guide/htm.
IPCC (2014) Climate Change: Mitigation of climate change Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change (Edenhofer, O., R. Pichs-Madruga, Y. Sokona, E. Farahani, S. Kadner, K.Seyboth, A. Adler, I. Baum, S. Brunner, P. Eickemeier, B. Kriemann, J. Savolainen, S. Schlömer, C. von Stechow, T. ZwickelandJ.C. Minx,eds.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA
Jenkinson, D.S. (1991). The turn over of organic carbon and nitrogen in soil. Philosophical Transaction. Royal Society of London, 239, 361-368.
Kallenbach, CM, Rolston, DE, Horwath, WR. (2010). Cover cropping affects soil N2O and CO2 emissions differently depending on type of irrigation. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment, 137(3–4), 251–260. DOI: http://dx.doi.or g/10.1016/j.agee.2010.02.010.
Kamble Ramani, Sawant, A.C. Chavan, P.G. and Pawar, P.P. (2008). Effect of integrated nutrient management on yield and N, P and K uptake by hybrid rice (RTNRH- 6). Int. J. Agric. Sci., 4(2),710-711.
Kamp, P., Purohit, D., Mandal, M. and Rout, K.K. (2017). Nutrient management for carbon sequestration and sustainable crop production under tropical rice- rice agro ecosystem. Academy of Management, 5,117-129
Kenchaiah, A. (1997). Organic farming in rice, Ph.D Thesis, Tamil Nadu. Agric. Univ. Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India.
Khan, A, Tan, DKY, Munsif, F, Afridi, MZ, Shah, F,Wei, F, Fahad, S, Zhou, R. (2017). Nitrogen nutrition in cotton and control strategies for greenhouse gas emissions: A review. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 24(30), 23471–23487. DOI: http:// dx.doi.org/10.1007/s1135 6-017-0131-y.
Khosa, M.K., Sidhu, B.S. and Benbi, D.K. (2010). Effect of organic materials and rice cultivars on methane emission from rice field. J. Environ. Biol., 31, 281-285.
Khosa, M.K., Sidhu, B.S. and Benbi, D.K. (2012). Effect of organic materials and rice cultivars on methane emission from rice field. J. Environ. Biol., 31: 281–285.
Kim. Gil Won, Hyo Suk Gwon, Seung TakJeong, Hyun Young Hwang and PilJoo Kim. (2016). Different responses of nitrogen fertilization on methane emission in rice plant included and excluded soils during cropping season. Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment, 230,162-168.
Koul, D.N., Shukla, G., Panwar, P. and Chakravarty, S. (2011). Status of soil carbon sequestration under different land use systems in Terai Zone of West Bengal, Environment & We: An. Int. J. Sci. Tech., 6, 95-100.
Kraus David, Sebastian Weller, Steffen Klatt, Ignacio Santabárbara, Edwin Haas, Reiner Wassmann, Christian Werner, Ralf Kiese and Klaus Butterbach-Bahl (2016). How well can we assess impacts of agricultural land management changes on the total greenhouse gas balance (CO2, CH4 and N2O) of tropical rice-cropping systems with a biogeochemical model? Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment, 224, 104-115.
Kukal, S.S., Rasool, R. and Benbi, D.K. (2009). Soil organic carbon sequestration in relation to organic and inorganic fertilization in rice-wheat and maize-wheat systems. Soil Till. Res., 102, 87-92.
Kundu, S., Dotaniya, M.L. and Lenka, S. (2013). Carbon sequestration in Indian agriculture. In: Lenka, S., Lenka, N.K., Kundu, S. and Rao, A.S. (eds) Climate change and natural resources management, 1stedn. New India Publishing Agency, New Delhi, pp 269–289
Lal, R. (2014). Societal value of soil carbon. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 69(6), 186A-192A, doi:10.24 89/jswc.69.6.186A.
Lee, D.K., Doolittle, J.J. and Owens, V.N. 2007. Soil carbon dioxide fluxes in established switchgrass land managed for biomass production. Soil Biol. Biochem., 39, 178-186.
Li, N, Kumar, P, Lai, LM, Abagandura, GO, Kumar, S, Nleya, T, Sieverding, HL, Stone, JJ, Gibbons, W. (2019). Response of soil greenhouse gas fluxes and soil properties to nitrogen fertilizer rates under Camelina and Carinata nonfood oilseed crops. BioEnergy Research, 12(3), 524–535.DOI: http://dx.doi. org/10.1007/s12155-019-09987-4.
Li, Z, Zeng, Z, Tian, D,Wang, J, Fu, Z, Zhang, F, Zhang, R, Chen, W, Luo, Y, Niu, S. (2020). Global patterns and controlling factors of soil nitrification rate. Global Change Biology, 00, 1–11. DOI: http://dx. doi.org/10.1111/gcb.15 119.
Lin, S., Zhang, S., Shen, G., Shaaban, M., Ju, W., Cui,Y., Duan, C., and Fang, L. (2021). Effects of inorganic and organic fertilizers on CO2 and CH4 fluxes from tea plantation soil. J.Elem Sci Anth., 9(1), 2-13. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1525/elementa.2021.090.
Lindau, CW., Bollich, P.K., De Laune, R.D., Moiser, A.R. and Bronson, K.F. (1993). Methane mitigation in flooded Louisiana rice fields. Biol. Fertil. Soils, 15 (3), 174-180.
Linquist, B.A., Adviento-Borbe, M.A., Pittelkow, C.M., van Kessel, C. and Van Groenigen, K.J. (2012). Fertilizer management practices and greenhouse gas emissions from rice systems: A quantitative review and analysis. Field Crops Res., 135, 10–21.
Liu, H, Ding, Y, Zhang, Q, Liu, X, Xu, J, Li, Y, Di, H. (2018). Heterotrophic nitrification and denitrification are the main sources of nitrous oxide in two paddy soils. Plant and Soil 445(1–2), 39–53. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11104-018-3860-x.
Liu, J, Li, N, Zhang,W,Wei, X, Tsang, D, Sun, Y, Luo, X, Bao, Z, Zheng,W,Wang, J, Xu, G, Hou, L, Chen, Y, Feng, Y. (2019). Thallium contamination in farmlands and common vegetables in a pyrite mining city and potential health risks. Environmental Pollution, 248, 906–915. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol. 2019.02.092.
Maheswara Prasad, V. and Prabhu Prasadini, P. (2014). Influence of integrated nutrient management on microbial biomass and enzymes under long-term rice-rice cropping system in Alfisols. The Andhra Agrc. J., 61(4), 841-850.
Majumdar, D., Kumar, S. and Jain, M.C.(1999). Methane production potential of some Indian soils. Asia Pacific. J. Environ. Sci., 6, 81- 85.
Manivannan, R. and Sriramachandrasekharan, M.V. (2016). Dynamics of inorganic fractions of nitrogen in an ustifluvents soil on incorporation of organic manures and mineral nitrogen in rice. International Journal of Development Research, 6(9): pp.9333-9338.
Matthews, R.B., Wassmann, R. and Arah, J.R.M. (2000). Using a crop-soil simulation model and GIS techniques to assess methane emissions from rice fields in Asia. I. Model development. Nutr. Cycl. Agroecosyst., 58: 11–159.
Mitra, S., Jain, M.C., Kumar, S., Bandyopadhyay, S. K. and Kalra, N. (1999). Effect of methane emission. Agric Ecosyst Environ, 73(3): 177-183.
Moharana, P.C., Sharma, B.M. Biswas, D.R., Dwivedi, B. S. and Singh, R.V. (2012). Long-term effect of nutrient management on soil fertility and soil organic pools under a 6 year-old Pearl millet - wheat cropping system in an Inceptisol of subtropical India. Field crops Research, 136: 32-41.
Naher, U.A., Hashem, M.A., Uddin, M.K., Ahmed, M. and Saleque, M.A. (2004). Carbon mineralization and carbon dioxide evolution rate of cow dung and poultry manure along with rice straw and lime under covered condition in the tropical environment. Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 7 (2):155-158.
Naresh, R.K., Arvind Kumar, R.K. Gupta, A.K. Shukla, S.S. Dhaliwal, R.S. Rathore, Vivek, Mukesh Kumar, S.P. Singh, Satyaveer Singh, S.S. Tomar, Hans Raj, S.P. Singh, R.C. Rathi, N. C. Mahajan and Rajendra Kumar (2018. Organic and conservation systems enhanced carbon sequestration potential and soil carbon stock dynamics: A review. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 7(2): 2362-2390.
Nayak, A.K., Gangwar, B.,Shukala, A.K., Mazumdar, S.P. and Kumar, A.K. (2012). Long-term effect of different integrated nutrient management on soil organic carbon and its fraction and sustainability of rice-wheat system in Indo Gangetic plains of India. Field crop Res., 127: 129-139.
Nungkat, P., Kusuma, Z. and Handayanto, E. (2014). Effects of organic matter application on methane emission from paddy field adopting organic farming system. J. Degraded and Mining Lands Managements, 2(2): 303-312.
Nyamadzawo, G, Wuta, M, Nyamangara, J, Smith, J.L, Rees, R.M. (2014). Nitrous oxide and methane emissions from cultivated seasonal wetland (dambo) soils with inorganic, organic and integrated nutrient management. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 100(2): 161–175. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/ s10705-014-9634-9.
Onwudike, S.U. (2010). Effectiveness of cow dung and mineral fertilizer on soil properties, nutrient uptake and yield of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatus) in Southeastern Nigeria. Asian J. Agric. Res., 4:148-154.
Oo, A.Z., Win, K.T. and Bellingrath-Kimura, S.D. (2015). Within field spatial variation in methane emissions from lowland rice in Myanmar. Springer Plus, 4:145.
Pascal, R.S. and Renin, W. E. (1997). Interactions between dehydrogenase activities and soil characteristics at some locations in the republic. Pl.Production., 43, 415-419.
Pathak, H., Bhatia, A. and Jain, N. (2014) Greenhouse Gas Emission from Indian Agriculture: Trends, Mitigation and Policy Needs. Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, xvi+39 p.
Pathak, H., Bhatia, A., Shiv Prasad, Singh, S., Kumar, S., Jain, M. C. and Kumar, U. (200)2. Emission of nitrous oxide from soil in rice-wheat systems of Indo-Gangetic plains of India. Environ. Monitoring Assessment, 77(2), 163–178.
Pathak, H., Byjesh, K., Chakrabarti, B. and Aggarwal, P.K. (2011). Potential and cost of carbon sequestration in Indian agriculture: Estimates from long-term field experiments. Field Crops Res., 120,102-111.
Pathak, H., Jain, N., Bhatia, A., Patel, J. and Aggarwal, P.K. (2010) Carbon footprints of Indian food items Agric Ecosys Environ, 139, 66-73
Pothare, S., Rathod, P.K.,Ravankar, H.N., Patil, Y.G.,Yewale, A.C. and Pothare, D. (2007). Effect of long-term fertilization in vertisols on soil properties and yield of sorghum wheat sequence. The Asian J. Soil Sci. 2(1): 74-78.
Pradhan, S., Bastia, D.K. and Tripathy, S. (2015). Soil organic carbon health and yield sustainability under organically managed rice-rice sequence. J. Crop and Weed, 11(1):108-112.
Puttaso, A., Vityakon, P.,Saenjan, P.,Trelo-ges, V. and Cadisch, G. (2011). Relationship between organic matter accumulation in a tropical sandy soil after 13 years. Nutr. Cycl Agroecosystem, 89, 159-174.
Qaswar, M, Jing, H, Ahmed,W, Li, D, Liu, S, Lu, Z, Cai, A, Lisheng, L, Yongmei, X, Jusheng, G, Huimin, Z. (2020). Yield sustainability, soil organic carbon sequestration and nutrients balance under longterm combined application of manure and inorganic fertilizers in acidic paddy soil. Soil & Tillage Research198, 104569. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10. 1016/j.still.2019.104569.
Qiu, Q .Y, Wu, L. F, Ouyang, Z, Li, B. B, Xu, Y. Y, Wu, S. S, Gregorich, E. G. (2015). Effects of plant-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM) on soil CO2 and N2O emissions and soil carbon and nitrogen sequestrations. Applied Soil Ecology 96: 122–130. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apsoil.2015.07.016.
Ravikumar, C. and Ganapathy, M. (2018). Effect of combined use of organic manures and inorganic fertilizers on the methane fluxes in rice crop (Oryza sativa), Journal of Emerging Technologies and Innovative Research, 5(11): 555-570 http://doi.one/10.1729/Journal.18866
Redeker, KR., Wang, N.Y., Low, J.C., McMillan, A., Tyler, S.C. and Cicerone, R.J. (2000). Emissions of methyl halides and methane from rice paddies. Science, 3: 966–969.
Reichardt, W., Mascarina, G., Padre, B. and Doll, J. 1997. Microbial communities of continuously cropped, irrigated rice fields. Appl. Envron. Microbio.,63: 233–38.
Rochette, P., Angers, D.A., Chantigny, M.H., Bertrand, N. and Cote, D. (2004). Carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide emissions following fall and spring applications of pig slurry to an agricultural soil. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 68: 1410-1420.
Salehi, A., Fallah, S. and Sourki, A.A. (2017). Organic and inorganic fertilizer effect on soil CO2 flux, microbial biomass, and growth of Nigella sativa L. Int. Agrophys., 31: 103-116
Samahadthai, P., Vityakon, and Saenjan, P. (2010). Effects of different quality plant residues on soil carbon accumulation and aggregate formation in a tropical sandy soil in northeast Thailand as revealed by a 10 year field experiment. Land degradation and development, 21, 46-473.
Sampanpanish, P. (2012). Effect of organic fertilizer use in rice paddy to reduce greenhouse gases. Int. Conf. Environ. Agric. Eng., 37, 79–85.
Sass, R.L., Fisher, F.M., Lewis, S.T.,Jund, M.F. and Turner, F.T. (1994). Methane emission from rice fields: Effect of soil properties, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 8(2):135-140.
Scherer, H.W. (2009). Sulphur in soils. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 172, 326. https://doi.org/10.10 02/jpln.200900037
Schimel, J. (2000). Global change: Rice, microbes and methane. Nature, 403: 375–377.
Segada, Z., Bonzi, M.,Gnankambary, Z.,Lompo, F. and Sedogo, M.P. (2014). Influence of soil fertility management on organic carbon mineralization in irrigated rice. J. Agrl. Crop Res., 2 (2), 32-43.
Sharma, K.L., Sharma, S.C., Bawa, S.S. Sher Singh, Chandrika, D.S. and Grace, J.K. 2015. Effects of Conjunctive Nutrient Management on Soil Fertility and Overall Soil Quality Index in SubmountainousInceptisol Soils under Rainfed Maize (Zea mays L.)–Wheat (Triticum aestivum) System. Commu. Soil Sci. Plant Anal., 46, 47-61.
Singh, R., Singh, Y.P., Yaduvanshi, N.P.S. and Sharma, D.K. (2009). Effect of irrigation scheduling and integrated nutrient management on yield of rice – wheat system and properties of a reclaimed sodic soil. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science, 57(3): 280–86.
Singh, R.B. (2000). Environmental consequences of agricultural development: a case study for the green revolution state of Haryana, India. Agr. Ecosys. Environ., 82: 97- 103.
Smith, K.A., Ball, T., Conen, F., Dobbie, K.E., Massheder, J. and Rey, A. (2003). Exchange of greenhouse gases between soil and atmosphere: interactions of soil physical factors and biological processes. Eur. J. Soil Sci., 54: 779-791.
Suwannarit, A. (2008). Fertilizer for agriculture and the environment (2nd ed.). Kasetsart University, Bangkok.
Tang, C., Sparling, G.P.,McLay, C.D.A. and Raphael, C. (1999). Effect of short-term legume residue decomposition on soil acidity, Australian Soil Research, 37: 3, 561–573.
UshaRani, K., Sharma, K.L., Nagasri, K., Srinivas, K., Vishnu Murthy, T., Maruthi Shankar, G.R., Korwar, G.R., Sridevi Shankar, K., Madhavi, M. and Kusuma Grace, J. (2009). Response of sunflower to sources and levels of sulphur under rainfed semi-arid tropical conditions. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Analysis, 40, 2926- 2944.
Valentini, R., Matteucci, G. and Jarvis, P.G. 2000. Respiration as the main determinant of carbon balance in European forests. Nature, 404, 861-865.
Wang, J., Wang, C., Chen, N.,Xiong, Z., Wolfe, D. and Zou, J. (2015). Response of rice production to elevated CO2 and its interaction with rising temperature or nitrogen supply A meta-analysis. Climate Change, DOI10.1007/s10584-015-1374-6.
Wang, W., Lai, D.Y.F., Wang, C., Tong, C. and Zeng, C. (2016). Effects of inorganic amendments, rice cultivars and cultivation methods on greenhouse gas emissions and rice in a subtropical paddy field. Ecol. Eng., 95, 770–778.
Wassmann, R. and Aulakh, M.S. (2000). The role of rice plants in regulating mechanisms of methane missions. Biol. Fertil. Soils, 31, 20–29.
Wu, L, Zhang, W, Wei, W, He, Z, Kuzyakov, Y, Bol, R, Hu, R. (2019). Soil organic matter priming and carbon balance after straw addition is regulated by longterm fertilization. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 135, 383–391. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio. 2019.06.003.
Wu, X,Wang, F, Li, T, Fu, B, Lv, Y, Liu, G. (2020). Nitrogen additions increase N2O emissions but reduce soil respiration and CH4 uptake during freeze–thaw cycles in an alpine meadow. Geoderma, 363, 114157. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2019. 114157.
Wu, X,Wang, F, Li, T, Fu, B, Lv, Y, Liu, G. (2020). Nitrogen additions increase N2O emissions but reduce soil respiration and CH4 uptake during freeze–thaw cycles in an alpine meadow. Geoderma 363, 114157. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2019. 114157.
Xiang, R. and Ng, C. H. (1996). Methane emission in rice field of Thailand. Journal of Environmental Sciences. 8(1): 38-47.101.
Yadav, R.L., Dwivedi, B.S. and Pandey, P.S. (2000). Rice-wheat cropping system: Assessment of sustainability under green manuring and chemical fertilizer input. Field Crop Res., 65, 15-30.
Yadav, S.K., Khokar, U.V. and Yadav, R.P. (2010). Integrated nutrient management for strawberry cultivation. Indian journal of horticulture, 67, 445-449.
Yan, D., Wang, D. and Yang, L. (2007). Long-term effect of chemical fertilizer, straw, and manure on labile organic matter fractions in a paddy soil. Biol. Fertil. Soils., 44, 93-101.
Yang, S.S. and Chang, E.H. 1997. Effect of fertilizer application on methane emission/ production in the paddy soils of Taiwan. Biol. Fert. Soils,25, 245–51.
Yu, QG, Hu, X, Ma, JW, Ye, J, Sun, WC,Wang, Q, Lin, H. (2020). Effects of long-term organic material applications on soil carbon and nitrogen fractions in paddy fields. Soil & Tillage Research, 196, 7. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2019.104483.
Yuan, Q., Pump, J. and Conrad, R. (2014). Straw application in paddy soil enhances methane production also from other carbon sources. Bio geosciences, 11, 237–246.
Yuan, Y., Li, H. and Huang, Q. (2004). Effects of different fertilization on soil organic carbon distribution and storage in micro– aggregates of red paddy topsoil. Acta Ecologica, Sinica, 24, 2961-2966.
Zhang, K., Wang, Z., Xu, Q., Liu, B., Duan, M. and Wang, l. (2020). Effect of controlled-release ureafertilizers for oilseed rape (Brassicanapus L.) on soil carbon storage and CO2 emission. Environmental Science and Pollution Research,27, 31983–31994.
Zhang, L.H., Shao, H.B., Wang, B.C., Zhang, L.W., Qin, X.C. (2019). Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus on the production of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide in salt-affected soils under different vegetation communities.Atmospheric Environment,204: 78–88. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2019. 02.024.
Zhou, G, Cao, W, Bai, J, Xu, C, Zeng, N, Gao, S, Rees, RM. (2019). Non-additive responses of soil C and N to rice straw and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth L.) mixtures in a paddy soil. Plant and Soil,436(1–2): 229–244. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11104-018-03926-6.
Zhou, GP, Gao, SJ, Xu, CX, Dou, FG, Shimizu, KY, Cao,W.2020. Rational utilization of leguminous green manure to mitigate methane emissions by influencing methanogenic and methanotrophic communities.Geoderma,361: 12. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2019.114071.
Zhou, ZH, Wang, CK, Jin, Y. (2017). Stoichiometric responses of soil microflora to nutrient additions for two temperate forest soils. Biology and Fertility of Soils,53(4): 397– 406. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10. 1007/s00374-017-1188-y.
Citation Format
How to Cite
Ravikumar, C. ., Ganapathy, M., Karthikeyan, A., Senthilvalavan, P., & Manivannan, R. (2021). Integrated nutrient management - promising way to reduce carbon dioxide and methane emission in flooded rice ecosystem: A review. Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 13(1), 385-395. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v13i1.2570
More Citation Formats:
Section
Research Articles