##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

Rakesh Bhutiani Faheem Ahamad Mukesh Ruhela

Abstract

Sand Intermittent Filtration (SIF) is an established technology of wastewater treatment and in recent years it gains renewed interest due to its simplicity and less energy requirement. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the modified filter-bed Reactor using Sand-intermittent-filtration (SIF) for the removal of physicochemical parameters viz dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total hardness (TH), calcium hardness (CaH), chloride (Cl), turbidity, total solids (TS), total dissolved solids (TDS), and total suspended solids (TSS) of the Industrial wastewater of State Industrial Development Corporation of Uttarakhand Limited (SIDCUL) at Haridwar. The experiments were performed with the composition of the filter-bed having sand and gravel in the ratio of 1:1 (Reactor I); 1:2 (Reactor II) and 2:1 (Reactor III) at the room temperature 300C. Each Reactor was categorized into A, B and C type based on depth of filter-bed (A=10 cm, B=15 cm, C=30 cm). The maximum removal of TS (52.21%), TDS (50.66%), TSS (57.20%), turbidity (67.36%), chloride (28.81%), BOD (39.18%), COD (38.66%), TH (53.40%), and CaH (62.57%) was observed in Reactor II C (soil and gravel- 2:1 and 30 cm depth of bed) using 0.49 mm effective size and 0.49 uniformity coefficient (UC) of the sand. A mixture of sand and gravel in the Reactor II with a ratio of 2:1 yielded better efficiency in comparison to the Reactor I and Reactor III. Thus, SIF technology could be environment-friendly and economically cost-effective for removing various physicochemical parameters from Industrial wastewater.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

Keywords

Biolayer, Reactor, Sand, wastewater, Sand intermittent filtration, SIDCUL

References
Agrawal, A., Sharma, N. and Sharma, P. (2020). Designing an economical slow sand filter for households to improve water quality parameters. Materials Today: Proceedings, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2020.09.450)
Aghalari, Z., Dahms, H. U., Sillanpaa, M., Sosa-Hernandez, J. E. and Parra-Saldívar, R. (2020). Effectiveness of wastewater treatment systems in removing microbial agents: a systematic review. Globalization and Health, 16:3, https://doi.org/10.1186/s12992-020-0546-y.
Al-Enazi, M. M., El-Khateeb, M. A. and El-Bahrawy, A. Z. (2013). Combining Chemical Treatment and Sand Filtration for the Olive Mill Wastewater Reclamation. Life Science Journal, 10(3): 583-592.
APHA-AWWA-WPCF (2012). Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 22nd edition. Water Environment Federation Washington, DC.
Aslam, M. M., Malik, M., Baig, M. A., Qazi, I. A. and Iqbal, J. (2007). Treatment performances of compost-based and gravel-based vertical flow wetlands operated identically for refinery wastewater treatment in Pakistan. Ecological engineering, 30: 34–42.
Bellamy, W. D., Hendricks, D. W. and Logsdon, G. S. (1985). Slow Sand Filtration Influences of Selected Process Variables. Journal of American Water Works Association, 77(12): 62-66.
Bhausaheb, L., Pangarkar, B., Parjane, S. and Sane, M. G. (2010). Design and Economical Performance of Gray Water Treatment Plant in Rural Region. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 37: 896-900.
Bhutiani, R., Pratap, H., Ahamad, F., Kumar, P. and Kaushik, P. D. (2017). Efficiency Assessment of Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) Treating an Automobile Industry Effluent (Sidcul) Haridwar. Environment Conservation Journal, 18(1&2): 95-102.
Campos, L., Su, M. F. J., Graham, N. J. D. and Smith, S. R. (2002). Biomass development in slow sand filters. Water Research, 36: 4543-4551.
Cheremisinoff, P. N. (2019). Hand book of water and wastewater treatment technology, CRC press, Boca Raton, UK.
Chuang, Y. H., Wang, G. S. and Tung, H. (2011). Chlorine residuals and haloacetic acid reduction in rapid sand filtration. Chemosphere, 85(7): 1146–53.
D'Alessio, M., Yoneyama, B., Kirs, M., Kisand, V. and Ray, C. (2015). Pharmaceutically active compounds: Their removal during slow sand filtration and their impact on slow sand filtration bacterial removal. Science of the Total Environment,; 24-135.
Ibrahim, K. A. I., Ahmed, S. I. A., El-Gendy, A. S. and Sabry, T. I. M. (2020). Effect of Media Properties on Performance of Sand Filtration for Drain Water Treatment. www.preprints.org, doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0112.v1
IWMI (2007). India’s water future to 2025-2050: Business-as-usual scenario and deviations. Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI). (IWMI Research Report 123).
Khan, T. A., Rehman, K. and Sheraz, K. (2016). Development and Testing of Low Cost Sand Filter for the Treatment of Industrial and Domestic Wastewater. International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT), 5(2): 504-511.
Khanna, D. R. and Bhutiani, R. (2008). Laboratory manual of water and Waste water Analysis. Daya Publishing House New Delhi -110002.
Matuzahroh, N., Fitriani, N., Ardiyanti, P. E., Kuncoro, E. P., Budiyanto, W. D., Isnadina, D. R. M., Wahyudianto, F. E. and Mohamed, R. M. S. R. (2020). Behaviour of schmutzdecke with varied filtration rates of slow sand filter to remove total coliforms. Heliyon 6: e03736.
MOEF (2000). Environmental Standards. Part C (General Standards for Discharge of Environmental Pollutants). Issued by Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) Vide Notification No. GSR-742 E dt. 25.09.2000.
Ochoa, S. I. C., Ushijima, K., Hijikata, N. and Funamizu, N. (2018). Treatment of Greywater by Geotextile Filter and Intermittent Sand Filtration. N. Funamizu (ed.), Resource-Oriented Agro-sanitation Systems, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-4-431-56835-3_14, pp-195-210.
Prasad, G., Rajput, R. and Chopra, A. K. (2006). Sand Intermittent Filtration Technology for safer Domestic Sewage Treatment. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management, 10(1): 73 -77.
Prasad, G., Rajput, R. and Chopra, A. K. (2007). Alternative economic technology for treatment of distillery effluent to prevent surface and ground water pollution. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management, 11(3): 35-39.
Ranjan, P. and Prem, M. (2018). Schmutzdecke- A Filtration Layer of Slow Sand Filter. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 7(7): 637-645.
Ruhela, M. Bhutiani, R. Ahamad, F. and Khanna, D. R. (2019). Impact of Hindon River Water on Selected Riparian Flora (Azadirachta Indica and Acacia Nilotica) with special Reference to Heavy Metals. Pollution, 5(4): 749-760.
Sahu, S. N., Sahoo, N. K. and Naik, S. N. (2019). Phycoremediation Technology: A Global prospective. In: Application of Microalgae in Wastewater Treatment Volume 1: Domestic and Industrial Wastewater Treatment, Edited by Gupta, S. K. and Bux, F. pp-1-18.
Shishaye, H. A. (2017). Design and Evaluation of Household Horizontal Slow Sand Filter. Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, 23(1): 1-10.
Zheng, X., Mehrez, R., Jekel, M. and Ernst, M. (2009). Effect of slow sand filtration of treated wastewater as pre-treatment to UF. Desalination, 249: 591–595.
Citation Format
How to Cite
Bhutiani, R. ., Faheem Ahamad, & Ruhela, M. . (2021). Effect of composition and depth of filter-bed on the efficiency of Sand-intermittent-filter treating the Industrial wastewater at Haridwar, India. Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 13(1), 88-94. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v13i1.2421
More Citation Formats:
Section
Research Articles