Biodiversity is not equally distributed across the world. It depends on the type of various habitats and food availability. In these habitats, wetlands play an import role to increase the biodiversity of the particular area. Many studies have focused on various habitats to conserve biodiversity. However, the wetland studies are very few due to the lack of information on their distribution and importance. The present review focusses on the wetland status and their importance in India. India has vibrant and diverse wetland ecosystems that support immense biodiversity. The wetlands are unique habitats which provide ecological, social and economic values. However, rapid urbanization, industrialization and uncontrolled agricultural practices have pressurized to shrink the wetlands in India. The present paper highlights the wetland habitats in India with their geographical location, distribution, avian species diversity and their significance. The paper also discusses the growing threats like climate change, land-use change and agriculture/ municipal waste to the wetlands and the conservation efforts by Indian government policies, i.e. National Wetland Conservation Programme, National Environmental Policy, and National Plan for conservation of the aquatic ecosystem. In addition, on the basis of previous studies on wetlands, it is suggested that the role of stakeholders is very much responsible for wetland conservation.
Avian biodiversity, Biodiversity, Conservation, Migratory birds, Wetlands
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