The solid waste found in rural areas can be used as a soil conditioner providing essential nutrients to crops and enhancing agricultural productivity. It is an eco-friendly and economic preference for Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSW). This study investigates the solid waste management scenario in rural areas along the river Ganga and proposes a sustainable waste management solution. Waste quantification and composition were determined in the five villages (rural areas) viz. Sajanpur, Shyampur, Kangri, Bhogpur and Dummanpuri of district Haridwar in Uttarakhand and their waste management and disposal systems were evaluated. Findings revealed that the average daily waste generation was 0.665 kg/day and per capita generation of household waste was around 0.16 kg/person/day. Major fraction of household waste was bio-degradable (74.14%) and remaining fraction comprised of paper (6.62%), polythene (2.82%), textile (2.52%), plastic (1.15%), glass (0.61%), metal (0.60%), rubber (0.35%), and inert (5.01%). The average bulk density of household waste was 460 kg/m3, whereas cattle waste bulk density was 834 kg/m3. Other waste characteristics included moisture content (60%), organic carbon (40%), nitrogen (1.7%), phosphorus (0.9%) and ash (31%). The calorific value of household waste (biodegradable) was 937.6 kcal/kg (dry
basis). Since most of the waste was biodegradable, hence co-composting with cattle waste is recommended. The dry waste can be separated and stored for further processing and transported to nearby waste to energy-producing plants. The main hurdle to the program of waste recycling was the unsegregated collection of waste in rural areas. Hence, separation at the source comprised biodegradable waste, dried waste (paper, plastic, and metal) and other components are essential for the future solid waste management program.
Composting, Rural areas, Solid waste characterization, Solid waste management, Source-separation
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