##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

Ankur Rajpal Absar Ahmad Kazmi Vinay Kumar Tyagi

Abstract

The solid waste found in rural areas can be used as a soil conditioner providing essential nutrients to crops and enhancing agricultural productivity. It is an eco-friendly and economic preference for Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSW). This study investigates the solid waste management scenario in rural areas along the river Ganga and proposes a sustainable waste management solution. Waste quantification and composition were determined in the five villages (rural areas) viz. Sajanpur, Shyampur, Kangri, Bhogpur and Dummanpuri of district Haridwar in Uttarakhand and their waste management and disposal systems were evaluated. Findings revealed that the average daily waste generation was 0.665 kg/day and per capita generation of household waste was around 0.16 kg/person/day. Major fraction of household waste was bio-degradable (74.14%) and remaining fraction comprised of paper (6.62%), polythene (2.82%), textile (2.52%), plastic (1.15%), glass (0.61%), metal (0.60%), rubber (0.35%), and inert (5.01%). The average bulk density of household waste was 460 kg/m3, whereas cattle waste bulk density was 834 kg/m3. Other waste characteristics included moisture content (60%), organic carbon (40%), nitrogen (1.7%), phosphorus (0.9%) and ash (31%). The calorific value of household waste (biodegradable) was 937.6 kcal/kg (dry
basis). Since most of the waste was biodegradable, hence co-composting with cattle waste is recommended. The dry waste can be separated and stored for further processing and transported to nearby waste to energy-producing plants. The main hurdle to the program of waste recycling was the unsegregated collection of waste in rural areas. Hence, separation at the source comprised biodegradable waste, dried waste (paper, plastic, and metal) and other components are essential for the future solid waste management program.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

Keywords

Composting, Rural areas, Solid waste characterization, Solid waste management, Source-separation

References
Adeniran, A.E., Nubi, A.T., Adelopo, A.O. (2017). Solid waste generation and characterization in the University of Lagos for a sustainable waste management. Waste
Management, 67: 3-10. DOI.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2017.0 5.0 02
Agamuthu, P., Mehran, S.B. (2019). Sustainable solid waste management: global andasian perspective. In: Rajeev Pratap Singh, Vishal Prasad, Barkha Vaish (Eds.), Recent Advances and Global Challenges in Waste Management, Taylor and Francis group/CRC Press. ISBN 978-1-138-39042-3.
Agamuthu, P., Mehran, S.B. (2020). Waste management challenges in Malaysia. In:Pariatamby, A., Shahul Hamid, F., Bhatti, M.S. (Eds.), Sustainable WasteManagement Challenges in Developing Countries. IGI Global, Hershey, PA, pp.186–222. DOI:10.4018/978-1-7998-0198-6.
APHA (2012). Standards methods for the examintion of water and wastewater. Washington, D.C., American public health association, American water works association and water environment federation.
Al-Khatib, I.A., Monou, M., Abu Zahra, A.S.F., Shaheen, H.Q., Kassinos, D. (2010). Solid waste characterization, quantification and management practices in developing countries. A case study: Nablus district Palestine. Journal of Environmental Management. 91: 1131 - 1138. DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2010.01.003
Bhatia, A., Ali, M., Sahoo,J., Madan, S., Pathania, R., Ahmed, N. and Kazmi, A.A. (2012). Microbial diversity during rotary drum & windrow pile composting. Journal of Basic Microbiology, 51, 1–11. DOI.org/10.1002/jobm.20 1100077
Census of India (2011). Report on Post Enumeration Survey, Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India 2/A, Mansingh Road, New Delhi
CPCB (2004). Management of Municipal Solid Waste. Ministry of Environment and Forests & Climate Change. Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), New Delhi, India.
CPCB (2015). Management of Municipal Solid Waste. Ministry of Environment and Forests & Climate Change. Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), New Delhi, India.
Das, D., Srinivasu, M., Bandyopadhyay, M. (1998). Solid state acidification of vegetable waste. Indian Journal of Environmental Health. 40 (4) : 333-342.
Dorenfeld, E. et al. (2012). Improving solid and human waste management in rural Namibia communities. http://www.drfn.info/docs/ecap/reports/comp2/WPI2012_ECAP.pdf
Dangi, M.B., Pretz, C. R., Urynowicz, M. A., Gerow, K. G., Reddy, J. M. (2011). Municipal solid waste generation in Kathmandu, Nepal. Journal of Environ Manag., 92(1) : 240–249.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2010.09.005.
El-Messery, M.A., Ismail, G.A., Arafa, A.K. (2009). Evaluation of municipal solid waste management in Egyptian rural areas. Journal of Egypt Public Health Assoc., 84: 51–71.
Fahiminia, M., Ansari, M., Nazari, S., Majidi, G., Fahiminia, V., Naseri, S., Mahvi, A., Azimi, A., Yousefi, N. (2014). Survey of solid waste and wastewater separate and combined management strategies in rural areas of Iran. Iranian Journal of Health Sciences 2(4):27-35. DOI: 10.18869/acadpub.jhs.2.4.27
González, P. T., Vega, C. A., Virgen, Q. A., Benítez, S. O. (2010). Household solid waste characteristic and management in rural communities. Journal of Open Waste Management, 3, 167-173. DOI: 10.2174/18759343010030101 67.
Mohammadi, A. l. (2012). A survey on the rural solid wastes characteristics in North Iran (Babol). University. Journal of Environmental Research Technology. 2(3): 149–153.
Ogwueleka, T.C. (2013). Survey of household waste composition and quantities in Abuja, Nigeria. Resource Conservation Recycle .77: 52–60. doi.org/10.1016/j.res conrec.2013.05.011.
Peavy, H.S., Rawe, D.R., Tchobanoglous, G. (1985). Environmental Engineering McGraw-Hill Book Company, Singapore.
Rajpal A., Bhatia A., Sudipti A., Kumar T. Kazmi A.A. Chopra A.K. (2014) “Co-treatment of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and Sewage by Vermireactor” Ecological Engineering. 73 : 154-161. DOI:10.1016/j.ecoleng.2014.09.012
Shah, R., Sharma, U.S., Tiwari, A. (2012). Sustainable solid waste management in rural areas. Int J. Theor Appl Sci, 4(2): 72–75.
Sharholy, M., Ahmad, K., Vaishya, R.C., Gupta, R.D. (2007), “Municipal solid waste characteristics and management in Allahabad, India”, Journal of Waste Management, 27 (4): pp. 490?6. DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2006.03.001
Tchobanoglous G, Kreith F. (2002). Handbook of solid waste management. McGraw-Hill, New York.
Ugwu, C. O., Ozoegwu, C. G., Ozor, P.A. (2020). Solid waste quantification and characterization in university of Nigeria, Nsukka campus, and recommendations for sustainable management. Doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04 255.
World Bank Data Report (2015). Population estimates and projections- Rural population (% total population) –India. http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.RUR.TOTL.Z S?locations=IN
Citation Format
How to Cite
Rajpal, A., Kazmi, A. A. ., & Tyagi, V. K. . (2020). Solid waste management in rural areas nearby river Ganga at Haridwar in Uttarakhand, India. Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 12(4), 592-598. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v12i4.2394
More Citation Formats:
Section
Research Articles