Achyranthus aspera is a common weed and known for various medicinal properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial activities of different concentrations of methanolic and petroleum-ether leaf extracts of A. aspera against three gram-positive bacteria (Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus mitis) and six gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi A (MTCC-3220), Shigella flexneri). The phytochemical screening of the leaf extract of the herb indicated the presence of flavonoides, tannins, saponins, polyphenolic compounds, alkaloids and glycosides. The methanolic extract at the highest concentration of 10 mg/ml showed prominent antibacterial activity in two gram-negative bacteria, i.e. K. pneumoniae and E. coli with 22 mm zone of inhibition and one gram-positive bacterium i.e. M. luteus with 19 mm zone of inhibition. The methanolic extract at 0.0781mg/ml concentration showed least antibacterial activity against all tested bacteria produced a zone of inhibition between 10 to 12 mm while petroleum ether extract of same concentration had moderate antibacterial activity against S. flexneri (15 mm zone of inhibition). It can be concluded that novel compounds like flavonoids, tannins, saponins, alkaloid, and polyphenolic compounds in A. aspera leaves have potent antimicrobial property.
Achyranthus aspera, Antibacterial activity, Gram-negative, Gram-positive, Phytochemical
Bagde, S., Khare, M., Patidar, R. K. and Singh, V. (2013). Antimicrobial Properties and Characterization of Phytoconstituents of the Leaf Extracts of Some Medicinal Plants. J. Pharmacognosy Phytochem., 1: 127?132
Bajaj, J., Dave, V., Sharma, S., Shukla, A. and Chakole, R. D. (2012). Pharmacognostical and phytochemical studies on Achyranthes aspera. World J. of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 1 (4): 1316 – 1331.
Banso, A. and Ngbede, J. E. (2006). Phytochemical screening and in vitro antifungal properties of Fagara zanthoxyloides. Journal of Food Agriculture and Environment, 4 (3 & 4): 8-9.
Burt, S. (2004). Essential oils: their antibacterial properties and potential applications in foods- A review. Int. J. Food Microbiol., 94: 223-253.
Dhawan, K., Dhawan, S., Sharma, A. (2004). Passiflora: a review update. J. Ethnopharmacol., 94:1-23.
Doss, A., V. Parivuguna, M. Vijayasanthi and S. Surendran, (2011).. Antibacterial evaluation and phytochemical analysis of Medicago sativa L. against some microbial pathogens. Ind. J. Sci. Technol., 4: 550?552.
Dubey, R., Dubey, K., Sridhar, C., and Jayaveera, K. N. (2011). Human Vaginal Pathogen Inhibition Studies on Aqueous, Methanolic And Saponins Extracts Of Stem Barks Of Ziziphus Mauritiana. Int. J.Pharm. Sci. Res., 2 (3): 659-663.
Geethalakshmi, R., Sarada, D. V .L., Marimuthu, P. (2010). Evalution of antimicrobial and antioxidant potentials of Trianthema decandra L. Asian J. of Biotech. 2 (4): 225-231.
Gordon, M. C. and David, N. (2005). Biodiversity: A continuing source of novel drug leads. Pure Appl. Chem, 77: 7-24.
Harborne, J. B. (1998). Phytochemical methods: A guide to modern techniques of plant analysis. 3rd edition. Chapman & Hall Pub. London, UK.
Hasan S. (2014). Pharmacological and medicinal uses of Achyranthus Aspera. International journal of science, enironmental technology. 3(1):123-129.
Iqbal, A.M., A. Firoz, K. Khan and M. Khan, (2013). Ethno-Phyto-Pharmacological Overview on Rauwolfia tetraphylla L. Int. J. Pharm. Phytopharmacol. Res., 2: 247?251.
Kambizi, L and Afolayan, A. J. (2008). Extracts from Aloe ferox and Withania somnifera inhibit Candida albicans and Neisseria gonorrhoea. African Journal of Biotechnology, 7 (1):. 012-015,
Kumar, G., Karthik, L. and Rao, K.V.B. (2010). Phytochemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial activity of Bauhinia racemosa Lamk (Caesalpiniaceae). International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, 1(11): 51-58.
Leung, A.Y. and Foster, S. (1996) Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs and Cosmetics. 2nd Edition, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York.
Mazid, M., T.A. Khan and F. Mohammad, (2011). Role of secondary metabolites in defense mechanisms of plants. Biol. Med., 3: 232?249.
McFarland J (1907) The Nephelometer: an instrument for esti-mating the number of bacteria in suspensions used for calculatingthe opsonic index and for vaccines. J Am Med Assoc. 14:1176–1178.
Murray, P. R., Baron, E. J., Pfaller, M. A., Tenover, F. C., Yolken, H. R. (1995). Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 6th Ed. ASM Press, Washington DC; 15-18.
Newall, C.A., Anderson, L.A. and Phillipson, J.D. (1996). Herbal Medicines. The Pharmaceutical Press, London, pp: 25.
Ngbede, J., Yakubu, R. A. and Nyam, D. A. (2008). Phytochemical Screening for Active Compounds in Canarium schweinfurthii ( Atile ) Leaves from Jos North, Plateau State, Nigeria. Medwell Research Journal of Biological Science, 3(9): 1076-1078.
Rahman, M. S., Salehin, M. F., Jamal, M. A., Pravin, H. M. and Alam, A. (2011). Antibacterial activity of Argemone mexicana L. against water borne microbes. Res. J. of Medicinal plant. 5 (5): 621-626.
Rates, S. M. K. (2001). Plants as source of drugs. Toxicon., 39: 603-613.
Reiner, R. (1982). Antibiotics- An Introduction, F. Hoffman La Roche and Co., Basle Switzerland, p. 70. Research Asia, (2008), 5 (2), 841-844.
Rishikesh, M., Rahman, Md. M., Goffar, Md. R., Al Mamun, M. R., Dutta, P. R. and Maruf, Md. A. AI. (2013). Phytochemical and pharmacological investigation of Achyranthes aspera L. Scholar Academic. of Pharmacy, 2 (2): 74-80.
Rohela, G. K., Bylla, P., Korra, R. and Reuben, C. (2016). Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Activity of Leaf, Stem, Root and their Callus Extracts in Rauwolfia tetraphylla. Int. J. Agric. Biol., 18 (3): 521 – 528. DOI: 10.17957/IJAB/15.0120
Satish. S., Raveesha, K.A. and Janardhana, G.R. (1999). Antibacterial activity of plant extracts on phytopathogenic Xanthomonas campestris pathovars. Letter in Applied Microbiology, 28: 145–147.
Selvamohon, T., Ramadas, V. and Kishore, S. S. (2012). Antimicrobial activity of selected medicinal plants against some selected human pathogenic bacteria. Pelagia Research Library, 3 (5): 3374-3381.
Shariff, N. S., Sudharshana, M.S., Umesha, S. and Hari Prasad, P. (2006). Antimicrobial activity of Rauwolfia tetraphylla and Physalis minima leaf and callus extracts. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 5: 946?950.
Sharma, A., Verma, R. and Ramteke, P. (2009). Antibacterial Activity of Some Medicinal Plants Used by Tribals Against Uti Causing Pathogens. World Applied Sciences Journal, 7 (3): 332-339.
Shubham, S., Mishra, R., Gautam, N., Nepal, M., Kashyap, N. and Dutta, K. (2019). “Phytochemical Analysis of Papaya Leaf Extract: Screening Test”. EC Dental Science, 18(3): 485- 490.
Singh, A. R., Bajaj, B. K., Sekhawat, P. S. and Singh, K. (2013). Phytochemical estimation and antimicrobial activity of aqueous and methanolic extract of Ocimum sanctum L. J. Nat. Prod. Plant Resour, 3 (1): 51-58.
Sravanthi, V., Nagabharathi, M., Manga, P., sowjjanya, B., Usha Rani, B., Bhairagi, P., Sridhar, K. and Umadevi, P. (2013). Invitro antihelmintic activity and preliminary phytochemical analysis of the leaves of Achyranthes aspera. J. Pharm. Biol. Sci., 1 (1): 21-25.
Srivastav, S., Singh, P., Mishra, G., Jha, K. K. and Khosa, R. L. (2011). Achyranthes aspera - An important medicinal plant: A review. J. Nat. Prod. Plant Resour., 1 (1): 1-14.
Tiwari, P., Gond. P. and Koshale, S. (2018). Phytochemical analysis of different parts of Achyranthes aspera. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, SP2: 60-62.
Truong, D. H., Nguyen, D. H., Anh Ta, N. T., Bui, A. V., Ha Do, T. and Nguyen, H. C. (2019). Evaluation of the Use of Different Solvents for Phytochemical Constituents, Antioxidants, and In Vitro Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Severinia buxifolia. Hindawi Journal of Food Quality, Volume 2019, Article ID 8178294, 9 pages https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/817829.
Upadhyay RK, Tripathi R, Ahmad S Antimicrobial activity of two Indian medicinal plants Tinospora cordifolia (Family: Menispermaceae) and Cassia fistula (Family: Caesalpinaceae) against human pathogenic bacteria. J. of Pharma. Res., 2011; 4(1):167-170.
Vijayan, A., Liju, V. B., John, J. V., Reena, Parthipan, B. and Renuka, C. (2007). Traditional remedies of Kani tribes of Kottoor reserve forest, Agasthyavanam, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 6 (4): 589-594.
Westh, H., Zinn, C.S., Rosdahl, V.T., Sarisa Study Group (2004): An international multicenter study of antimicrobial consumption and resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolates from 15 hospitals in 14 countries. Microbial Drug Resistance, 10: 169-176.
Williamson, E.M., Okpako, D.J. and Evans, F.J. (1996). Pharmacological Methods in Phytotherapy Research. Vol. 1. Selection, Preparation and Pharmacological Evaluation of Plant Material. John Wiley and Sons Ltd, Chichester, England, pp. 9-13.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
This work is licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) © Author (s)