Harekrishna Das Saswat Nayak Diptimayee Sadangi


The wide distribution of Terminalia bellirica in natural forests of Odisha has a good opportunity to identify better genotypes with higher oil yielding potential.  The study related to variation in oil content, morphometric characters and germination of Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. seeds was carried out in nine provenances viz. Deogan, Bolangir Kasturi Bahal, Narada, Kantamal, Jeypore, Gunupur, Kuchinda and  Ghatikia of Odisha (India) keeping in the importance of the seed oil for biodiesel production, soap industry and medicinal values. T. bellirica is widely distributed in Odisha with gregarious fruiting of which most of the fruits remain unused except used as myrobalan for medicinal purposes. It revealed that Kantamal provenance expressed highest fruits length (3.87cm) and 100 fruit weight (1340.17gm), 100 seed weight(649.05gm) and 100 kernel weight(99.43gm) with maximum oil yield which can be taken up for further improvement study. However, the progeny testing at nursey level was also found to have the same provenance performing best for germination and seedling characters.



Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...




Morphometric, Germination, Oil content, Provenances, Seeds, Terinalia bellirica

Abraham, Z. Yadav, S. Latha, M. Mani, S. Mishra, and S. K. (2010). Seed variability in Madhuca longifolia (Koenig) J. F. Macbride, a source of oil for use as bio-energy. Genet Resour Crop E. 57:619–623.
Ahn,M.H,Kim,C.Y,Lee,J,S,Kim,T.G.,Kim,S.H,Lee,C.K,Lee,B.B,Shin,G.G,Huh,H.,Kim, J. (2002).Inhibition of HIV-I integrase by galloyl glucose from Terminalia chebula and flavonol glycoside gallates from Euphorbia pekinensis.Planta Med.68:457-459.
AOSA (1983). Association of Official Seed Analysis,1983, “Seed Vigor Testing Handbook. Contribution,” 1983. No.32 to the handbook on Seed Testing, published by AOSAand SCST, USA.
Chatterjee, S. and Pakrasi, S.C. (2000).The Treaties on Indian Medicinal Plants, National Institute of Science Communication and InformationResources,3:203-204.
Chhetri A.B., Tango M.S., Budge S.M., (2008) Non-edible plant oils as new sources for biodiesel production. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 9 (2): 169–180.
Czabator, F.J. (1962) Germination value: an index combining speed and completeness of Pine seed germination. Forest Science 8: 386-396.
Deb A., Barua, S. and Das, B. (2016). Pharmacological activities of Baheda (Terminalia bellerica): A review. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 5(1): 194-197.
Demirbas, A., Bafail, A., Ahmad, W. and Manzoor Sheikh, W. (2016). Biodiesel production from non-edible plant oils. Energy Exploration & Exploitation, 34(2) 290–318.
Devagiri, G. M., Dhiman, R .C, Thapiyal, R. C. and Nautiyal, S. (1998). Seed source variation in pod and seed traits of Dalbergia sissoo.Ann. For., 6: 148 -155.
Dwivedi, A. P.1993, National level of Neem Seed source trials at Jodhpur. Syst. Ecol. Contrib. 5(7):20-34.
Gairola, K.C. Nautiyal, A.R. Sharma, G. and Dwivedi, A.K. (2011).Variability in Seed Characteristics of Jatropha curcas Linn. From Hill Region of Uttarakhand. Bulletin of Environment, Pharmacology & Life Sciences1(1):64-69.
Ginwal, H. S., S. S. Phartyal, P. S. Rawat and R. L. Srivastava (2005). Seed source variation in morphology, germination and seedling growth of Jatropha curcas Linn.in Central India. Silvae Genetica 54:76-80.
Gupta, G. Handa, A.K. Ajit and Maurya, D. (2016). Variation in seed and seedling traits of Pongamia pinnata. Indian Forester 142 (9) : 852-857 .
Johnson, H.W., Robinson, H.F. and Comstock, R.E.(1955). Genotypic and phenotypic correlations in soybean and their implications in selections. Agron J, 47: 477-483.
Kaushik, N., K. Kumar, S. Kumar and S. Roy (2007). Genetic variability and divergence studies in seed traits and oil content of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) accessions. Biomass and Bioenergy 31:497-502.
Kaushik, N., K. Kumar, S. Kumar and S. Roy., R.S. Beniwal, N.Kousik and S.Ray (2007). Genetic variability and association studies in pot and seed traits of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre in Haryana, India, Genetic resources and crop evaluation,54(8) :1827-1832.
Lush, J.C.(1937). Animal Breeding Plans. State College Press, Ames, Lowa.
Marwaha, A., Rosha, P., Mohapatra, S.K. Mahla, S.K. and Dhir, A. (2019). Biodiesel production from Terminalia bellerica using eggshell-based green catalyst: An optimization study with response surface methodology.Energy Reports, 5: 1580–1588.
Nayak, S., Sahoo, U.K., Thangjam, U. and Garnayak L.M. (2020). Provenance variations of morphometric traits and oil contents of Madhuca latifolia Macbride in Odisha: Implication for tree improvement. Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences, 8(3): 224 – 232
Pavithra, H. R., Gowda, B., Prasanna, K.T. and Shivanna, M.B.(2013). Pod and Seed Traits in Candidate Plus Trees of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre from Southern Peninsular India in Relation to Provenance Variation and Genetic Variability, J. Crop Sci. Biotech.16 (2): 131-142.
Police Patil, V. M., Shivanna, H., Surendra, P., Manjunath, G.O., Krishna, A. and Dasar, G. V. (2011). Variability studies for seed and seedling traits in Pongamia pinnata (L.)Pierre. Karnataka J. Agric. Sci., 24 (2): 201-203.
Ramachandra, N.G. (1996). Provenance variation in seed and seedling parameters in Acacia catechu. Wild. PhD Thesis, FRI Deemed University, Dehradun
Rudreshaiah,O.B.,  Venkatesh, Y.K. and  Ramappa, S.( 2019). Terminalia bellirica: a new biodiesel for diesel engine: a comparative experimental investigation. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 27: 14432–14440.
Salami, K. D. and Akinyele, A.O. (2015). Provenance variation in seed and seedlings attributes of Jatropha curcas Linn. in South-Western Nigeria. Direct Research Journal of Agriculture and Food Science, 3 (7): 143-147.
Saverimuttu,T and Westoby, M. (1996).Seedling longevity under deep shade in relation size. Journal Ecology, 84:681-689.
Sharma, S.S., Islam, M.A., Malik, A.A., Kumar, K., Negi, M.S. and Tripathi S. B. (2016). Seed traits, fatty acid profile and genetic diversity assessment in Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre germplasm. Physiol Mol Biol Plants, 22(2):193–205.
Sarin R., Sharma M. and Khan A. A. (2010). Terminalia belerica Roxb. seed oil: A potential biodiesel resource. Bioresource Technology, 101(4): 1380-138
Saverimuttu, T and Westboy, M. (1996).Seedling longevity under deep shade in relation to size. J.Ecol.,84:681-689.
Sharma, R.K. and Sharma, S.S. (1995). Heritability and association analysis in Grewiaoptiva. Indian Forester, 121(4):318-320.
Snedecor, G.W. and Cochran, W.G. (1967). Book Review Statistical Methods G.Sixth edition. Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press, Book Review Statistical Methods 8:593.
Srivastava, D.P., Srivastava, P.K., Goel, A.K. and Thangavelu,, K. (1993). Genetic variability in Terminalia arjuna Bedd. Ind. J.For. 16(3):223-225
Subramanian, K. N., Mandal, A.K. and Nicodemus, A. (1995). Genetic variability and characters association in Eucalypyus grandis. Ann. For., 3(2):134-137
Vasanth Reddy, K.N., Pradeep Kumar, H., Siddraju, C.M., Rajesh P. Gunga, Madiwalar, S.L. and Patil, S.K. (2007). Seed source variation for seed and seedling traits in Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre; An important biofuel yielding tree species. My For., 43 (1):61-68
Wani, M.S. and Ahmad, L. (2013). Estimation of field environment variability for germination and seedling traits in Madhuca indica Gmel. American Journal of Experimental Agriculture. 3 (2):361-373.
Wani, M.S. and Wani, A.M. (2013). Genetic variability and association analysis in Madhuca indica Gmel. Indian Forester, 139 (8):692-698
Weis.M.L. (1982).The effect of propagule size on germination and seedling growth in Mirbilis histue. Can. J. Bot., 60:1868-1874.
Zimmerman.J.K and Weis, M.L.(1983).Fruit size variation and effects on germination seedling growth in Xanthium strumarium. Can.J.Botan., 61: 2309-2315.
Citation Format
How to Cite
Das, H., Nayak, S. ., & Sadangi, D. . (2020). Variation in morphometric characters, germination and oil content of Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. seeds collected from various provenances of Odisha, India . Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 12(3), 319-327. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v12i3.2310
More Citation Formats:
Research Articles