Abdul-Razak M. Mohamed Abdullah N. Abood


Cichlids are invasive fish to Iraqi waters and became well established and prevailing in different waters. Despite that, there is no stock assessment study conducted for these fish. So, growth, mortality, recruitment and yield-per-recruit of two cichlid’s species; Coptodon zillii and Oreochromis aureus from the Shatt Al-Arab River, Iraq were evaluated from November 2015 to October 2016 using the FiSAT software. A total of 1285 C. zillii (2.9-24.0 cm TL) and 1353 O. aureus (4.5-25.0 cm TL) were examined. Length-weight relationships were derived, indicating allometric growth for both species. The growth parameters (L?, K, Rn, to and ?) obtained for C. zillii were 25.5 cm, 0.320, 0.212, -0.793 and 2.318, respectively, while for O. aureus were 27.8, 0.490, 0.214, -0.271 and 2.578, respectively. The annual rate of total mortality (Z), fishing (F) and natural (M) for C. zillii was found to be 1.51, 0.84 and 0.68 respectively, and for O. aureus 2.49, 1.08 and 1.41, respectively. The present exploitation rates (Epresent) for C. zillii and O. aureus were computed to be 0.454 and 0.57, respectively. Lengths at first capture (LC) were 12.97 cm for C. zillii and 13.25 cm for O. aureus. The peaks of recruitment of C. zillii and O. aureus were from February to May and May to July, respectively. The Epresent for C. zillii and O. aureus were below the biological target reference points (F0.1  and Fmax), indicating that these species were not overexploited. For management purposes, more yields could be obtained by an increase in the fishing activities on cichlids.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...




Cichlids, Growth, Mortality, Shatt Al-Arab River, Yield-per-recruit

Abdul WO and Omoniyi IT. (2011). Recruitment pattern, probability of capture and predicted yields of Tilapia zillii in Ogun estuary, Nigeria. Journal of Agricultural Science and Environment, 11(2): 90-102.
Adeyemi SO and Akombo PM. (2012). A growth and mortality rate of dominant cichlids in Gbedikere Lake, Kogi State, Nigeria. Animal Research International, 9(1): 1497-1501.
Al-Wan SM and Mohamed ARM. (2019). Analysis of the biological features of the blue tilapia, Oreochromis aureus in the Garmat Ali River, Basrah, Iraq. Asian Journal of Applied Sciences, 7(6): 776-787.
Bagenal TB and Tesch FW. (1978). “Age and growth. In: Methods for assessment of fish production in freshwater (Bagenal TB. Ed.)”. Blackwell Sci. Inc, 101-130.
Beverton RJH and Holt SJ. (1966). Manual of methods for fish stock assessment. Part II. Fish. Biol. Tech. Pap., 38: 10-67.
Cadima EL. (2003). “Fish stock assessment manual”. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 393. Rome, FAO. 161p.
Cuadrado JT, Lim DS, Alcontin RMS, Calang JL and Jumawan JC. (2019). Species composition and length-weight relationship of twelve fish species in the two lakes of Esperanza, Agusan del Sur, Philippines. FishTaxa, 4(1) : 1-8.
Efitre J, Murie DJ and Chapman LJ. (2016). Age validation, growth and mortality of introduced Tilapia zillii in Crater Lake Nkuruba, Uganda. Fisheries Management and Ecology, 23: 66-75. DOI: 10.1111/fme.12163.
El-Bokhty EEB and El-Far AM. (2014). Evaluation of Oreochromis niloticus and Tilapia zillii fisheries at Aswan region, River Nile, Egypt. Egypt. J. Aquat. Biol. Fish., 18(3): 79-89. DOI: 10.21608/ejabf.2014.2220.
El-Sayed AFM. (2006). “Tilapia culture”. CABI Publishing, Wallingford OX 108 DE. UK. 273 p.
FAO. (2018). “The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2018 - Meeting the sustainable development goals”. Rome. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
FAO. (2019). “GLOBEFISH Highlights-A quarterly update on world seafood Markets”. January 2019 Issue. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.
Gayanilo FCJr, Sparre P and Pauly D. (2005). FAO-ICLARM Stock Assessment Tools II (FiSAT II). Revised version. User's guide. FAO Comp. Info. Ser. (Fisheries), 8: 1-168.
Gokce G, Aydin I and Metin C. (2007). Length-weight relationships of 7 fish species from the North Aegean Sea, Turkey. International Journal of Natural and Engineering Sciences, 1: 51-52.
Gulland JA. (1971). “Fish resources of the Ocean”. Fishing News Books, Surrey, London, England. 255pp.
Hadi AA. (2008) Some observations on the age and growth of Tilapia zillii (GERVAIS, 1848) in Umhfein Lake (Libya). J. Sci. Appl., 2: 12-21.
Hussain TS, Abu Alheni AKJ, Kati AZJ, Hassan SM, Ali SM and Mohsen AM. (2017). Describe the growth of blue tilapia Oreochromis aureus (Steindachner, 1864) in the Euphrates River/Al-Hindyah barrier. Journal of Tikrit University for Agricultural Sciences, 17: 443-450.
Ibrahim SM, Shalloof KASh and Salama HM. (2008). Effect of Environmental Conditions of Abu-Zabal Lake on Some Biological, Histological and Quality Aspects of Fish. Global Veterinaria, 2 (5): 257-270.
Innal D and Giannetto D. (2017). Age Structure and length-weight relationship of non-native Redbelly Tilapia Coptodon zillii (Gervais, 1848) (Cichlidae) in the P?narba?? Spring Creek (Burdur, Turkey). Acta Zoologica Bulgaria, 9: 111-116.
Jiménez-Badillo L. (2006). Age-growth models for tilapia Oreochromis aureus (Perciformes: Cichlidae) of the Infiernillo reservoir, Mexico and reproductive behavior. Revista de Biología Tropical, 54: 577-588.
Kwarfo-Apegyah K and Ofori-Danson PK. (2010). Spawning and recruitment patterns of major fish species in Bontanga Reservoir, Ghana, West Africa. Lakes & Reservoirs Research & Management, 15(1): 3-14. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440- 1770.2010.004 18.x.
Le Cren, ED. (1951). The length-weight relationship and seasonal cycle in gonad weight and condition in the perch (Perca fluviatilis). J. Anim. Ecol., 20: 201–219.
Mahmoud HH, Ezzat AA, El-Sayed Ali T and El Samman A. (2013). Fisheries management of cichlid fishes in Nozha Hydrodrome, Alexandria, Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research, 39: 283–289. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejar.2013.12.006.
Mahmoud M H and Mazrouh MM. (2008). Biology and fisheries management of Tilapia species in Rosetta branch of the Nile River, Egypt. Egyptian J. Aquat. Res., 34(3): 272–285.
Mahomoud WF, Amal MMA, Kamal FEA, Mohamed R and Magdy MKO. (2011). Reproductive biology and some observation on the age, growth, and management of Tilapia zilli (Gerv, 1848) from Lake Timsah, Egypt. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquaculture 3(2): 15-25.
McAndrews BJ (2000). “Evolution, phylogenetic relationships and biogeography. In: Tilapias: Biology and Exploitation (Beveridge MCM and McAndrews BJ (Eds)”. Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1-32.
Mehanna SF. (2004). Population dynamics of two cichlids, Oreochromis aureus and Tilapia zillii, from Wadi El-Raiyan Lakes. Egypt. Agri. Marine Sci., 9(1): 9-16.
Messina EP, Varela RT, Abunader JIV, Mendoza AAO and Arce JM. (2010). Growth, mortality and reproduction of the blue tilapia Oreochromis aureus (Perciformes: Cichlidae) in the Aguamilpa Reservoir, Mexico. Rev. Biol. Trop., 58 (4): 1577-1586. DOI: 10.15517/rbt.v58i4.5432.
Mir JI, Shabir R and Mir FA. (2012). Length-Weight Relationship and Condition Factor of Schizopyge curvifrons (Heckel, 1838) from River Jhelum, Kashmir, India. World Journal of Fish and Marine Sciences, 4 (3): 325-329.
Mohamed ARM and Abood AN. (2017). Compositional change in fish assemblage structure in the Shatt Al-Arab River, Iraq. Asian Journal of Applied Sciences, 5(5): 944-958.
Mohamed ARM and Al-Wan SM. (2020). Evaluation of biological characters of the invasive species, Coptodon zillii in the Garmat Ali River, Basrah, Iraq. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies, 8(2): 176-185.
Mohamed ARM and Hameed EK. (2019). Impacts of saltwater intrusion on the fish assemblage in the middle part of Shatt Al-Arab River, Iraq. Asian Journal of Applied Sciences, 7(5): 577-586. DOI: 10.24203/ajas.v7i5.5917.
Negassa A and Getahun A. (2003). Breeding season, length-weight relationship and condition factor introduced fish, Tilapia zilli Gerv. 1848 (Pisces: Cichlidae) Lake Zwai, Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Science, 26(2): 115-122. DOI: 10.4314/sinet.v26i2.18 207.
Nikolsky GV. (1963). “The ecology of fishes”. Academic Press, London and New York, 352 pp.
Panda D, Mohanty SK, Pattnaik AK, Das S and Karna SK. (2018). Growth, mortality and stock status of mullets (Mugilidae) in Chilika Lake, India. Lakes & Reservoirs, 2018: 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1111/lre.122 05.
Pauly D and Munro JL. (1984). Once more on the comparison of growth in fish and invertebrates. ICLARM Fish byte, 2, 21.
Pauly D and Soriano ML. (1986). “Some practical extensions to Beverton and Holt's relative yield-per-recruit model. In: The First Asian Fisheries Forum (Maclean JL, Dizon LB and Hosillo LV (Eds.)”. Asian Fisheries Society, Manila, 491-496.
Pauly D. (1980). On the interrelationships between natural mortality, growth parameters and mean environmental temperature in 175 fish stocks. J. Cons. CIEM, 39(3): 175-192. https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/39.2.175.
Pauly D. (1983). Some simple methods for assessment of tropical fish stocks. FAO Fish. Tech. Pap., 234: 52.
Popma T and Masser M. (1999). “Tilapia Life History and Biology”. Southern Regional Aquaculture Centre, USA, Publication No. 283.
Ricker WE. (1975). Computation and interpretation of biological statistics of fish populations. Bull. Fish. Res. Board. Can., 191: 382 p.
Riedel R, Caskey LM and Hurlbert SH. (2007). Length-weight relations and growth rates of dominant fishes of the Salton Sea: implications for predation by fish-eating birds. Lake and Reservoir Management, 23: 528-535. https://doi.org/10.1080/074 38140709 354036.
Saleh HH. (1972). A comparative study of the length-weight equation and the condition factor of Tilapia zillii from Lake Mariut, Egypt. Marine Biology, 12: 255-260. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00346773.
Saleh KI. (2007). First recorded of Tilapia zillii (Gervais, 1848), in natural water of Iraq (Tigris River). The First Scientific Conference of Agricultures College, University of Basra, 26–27.
Shalloof KA and El-Far AM. (2009). Age, growth and fishery biology of cichlid spp. In Abu-Zaabal Lakes, Egypt. Egypt J. Aquat. Biol. Fish., 13: 101-116. DOI: 10.21608/ejabf.2009.2035.
Shalloof KA. (2009). Some observations on fisheries biology of Tilapia zillii (Gervais, 1848) and Solea vulgaris (Quensel, 1806) in Lake Qarun, Egypt. World Journal of Fish and Marine Sciences, 1(1): 20-28.
Uneke BI and Nwani CD. (2014). Stock assessment of Tilapia zilli (Gervais, 1848) (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae) in a Nigerian tropical river basin. Zoology and Ecology, 24(4): 1-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/216580 05.2014.959283.
Uneke BI. (2015). Condition Factor of Tilapia Species in Ebonyi River, Southeastern Nigeria. International Journal of Biological Sciences and Applications, 2(4): 33-36.
Wootton R.J. (2011). “Growth: environmental effects. In: Encyclopedia of fish physiology: from genome to environment (Farrell AP, Ed.).” Elsevier Science Publishing Co. Inc, United States, 1629-1635.
Citation Format
How to Cite
Mohamed, A.-R. M., & Abood, A. N. (2020). Population dynamics and management of two cichlid species in the Shatt Al-Arab River, Iraq. Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 12(2), 261-269. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.vi.2293
More Citation Formats:
Research Articles