Major parts of agricultural lands in arid and semi-arid regions of India are affected by soil salinity and waterlogging in canal command area and outside. Waterlogging is caused by a rising water table and poor drainage conditions. Stress due to waterlogging and salinity are serious to plants in all stages from seed germination to active growth and maturity. Unmanaged affected agricultural lands turn into low productive marshlands in the long run. Physical provision of surface or sub-surface drainage structures can rescue in such a situation. Yet, high skill and investment are required in the installation and maintenance of such structures. Alternatively, biodrainage method has been evolved as an effective method recently world over. In biodrainage, plants are raised over a larger area, which can transpire and remove an enormous amount of water from the soil. Plants having adequate adaptive traits and tolerance mechanisms are desirable to mitigate waterlogging and salinity. Biodrainage is suitable in rainfed and irrigated conditions. Planting of right plant species in optimum population and geometry decides the efficiency of biodrainage. Further, combining biodrainage with the conventional drainage can improve land and water productivity. Eucalyptus is the most suitable tree species for biodrainage as it has well performed in versatile environments. It possesses appreciable tolerance to salinity, sodicity and waterlogged conditions of the soil. Fast-growing with a straight trunk, deep rooting ability, low shading effect and high transpiration capacity are promising characteristics of this tree. Prominent woody species like Acacia nilotica, Dalbergia sissoo, Hardwickia binata can also be grown for high profit.
Biodrainage, Drainage, Eucalyptus, Salinity, Waterlogging
Andrew, D.H. and Peter, A.T. (2018). Tree Water Relations. Applied Tree Biology, First Edition. John Wiley & Sons Ltd., pp 239-259.
Anonymous (2015). Vision 2050. Central Soil Salinity Research Institute (Indian Council of Agricultural Research), Karnal, India, pp 31.
Ashraf, M.A. (2009). Improving salinity tolerance of plants through conventional breeding and genetic engineering: An analytical comparison. Biotech. Adv., 27: 744-752.
Ashraf, M.A. (2012) Waterlogging stress in plants: A review. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 7(13): 1976-1981.
Ausubel, J.H., Wernick, I.K. and Waggoner., P.E. (2013). Peak farmland and the prospect for land sparing. Popul. Dev. Rev., 38: 221–242.
Baisakh, N., Subudhi, P. K., and Parami, N. P. (2006). cDNA-AFLP analysis reveals differential gene expression in response to salt stress in a halophyte Spartina alterniflora Loisel. Plant Science, 170(6): 1141–1149.
Barrett L.E.G. (2003). The interaction between waterlogging and salinity in higher plants: causes, consequences and implications. Plant and Soil, 253: 35–54.
Bastiaanssen, W.G.M., Brito, R.A.L., Bos, M.G., Souza, R., Cavalcanti, E.B. and Bakker, M.M. (2001). Low cost satellite data applied to performance monitoring of the Nilo Coelho irrigation scheme, Brazil. Irrig. Drain. Syst., 15(1): 53–79.
Bennett, S.J., Barrett L.E.G. and Colmer, T.D. (2009). Salinity and waterlogging as constraints to salt land pasture production: a review. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ., 129: 349–360.
Benny, J., Pisciotta, A., Caruso, T. and Martinelli, F. (2019). Identification of key genes and its chromosome regions linked to drought responses in leaves across different crops through meta-analysis of RNA-Seq data. BMC Plant Biol. 19, 194. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12870-019-1794-y
Brunner, I., Herzog, C., Dawes, M.A., Arend, M. and Christoph. (2015). How tree roots respond to drought. Front. Plant Sci., 2015: 547 (1-16) https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2015.00547
Burgess, S.S.O., Adams, M.A., Turner, N.C. and Ong, C.K. (1998). The redistribution of soil water by tree root systems. Oecologia. 115: 306–311.
Calder, I.R., Rosier, P.T.W., Prasanna, K. T. and Parameswarappa. S. (1997). Eucalyptus water use greater than rainfall input- a possible explanation from southern India. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 1(2): 249-256.
Celestina, C., Midwood, J., Sherri?, S., Trengove, S., Hunt, J., Tang, C., Sale, P. and Franks, A. (2018). Crop yield responses to surface and subsoil applications of poultry litter and inorganic fertiliser in south-eastern Australia. Crop Pasture Sci., 69: 303–316.
Chang, W.P., Huang, L., Shen, M., Webster, C., Burlingame, A.L. and Roberts, J.K. (2000). Protein synthesis and tolerance of anoxia in root tips of maize seedlings acclimated to a low oxygen environment and identification of protein by mass spectrometry. Plant physiol., 122: 295-318.
Chauhan, M.K., Ram, J. and Dagar, J. C. (2012). Biodrainage and carbon sequestration. Lambert Academic Publishing, Germany, (ISBN-10: 3659147095, ISBN-13: 978-3659147098) pp. 304.
Chen, L., Zhang, Z. and Ewers, B.E. (2012). Urban Tree Species Show the Same Hydraulic Response to Vapor Pressure Deficit across Varying Tree Size and Environmental Conditions PLOS ONE 2012, 7 (10) e47882 (1-10)
Chhabra, R. and Thakur, N.P. (1998). Lysimeter study on the use of bio-drainage to control waterlogging and secondary salinization in (canal) irrigated arid/semi-arid environment. Irrigation and Drainage Systems 12: 265–288. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Netherlands.
Chowdhury, R.S., Kumar, A., Brahmanand, P.S., Ghosh, S., Mohanty R.K., Jena, S.K, Sahoo, N. and Panda, G. C. (2011). Application of biodrainage for reclamation of waterlogged situations in deltaic Orissa. Research Bulletin No. 53. Directorate of Water Management: Bhubaneswar, India; pp 32.
Christianson, J.A., Llewellyn, D.J., Dennis, E.S. and Wilson, I.W. (2010). Comparisons of early transcriptome responses to low-oxygen environments in three dicotyledonous plant species. Plant Signal. Behav., 5: 1006–1009.
CSD Manual (2018). Tree Planting, Maintenance, and Protection Manual - 2018/06. Town of Hanna Community Services Department 302 2nd Avenue West PO Box 430 Hanna, AB Canada T0J 1P0. Website: www.HANNA.ca
Dagar, J.C. (2014). Greening salty and waterlogged lands through agroforestry systems. Agroforestry Systems in India: Livelihood Security & Environmental Services, Advances in Agroforestry, 10: 333-344. Springer Publishers, India.
Dagar, J.C., Lal, K., Ram, J., Kumar, M., Chaudhari, S.K., Yadav, R.K., Ahamad, S., Singh, G. and Kaur, A. (2016). Eucalyptus geometry in agroforestry on waterlogged saline soils influences plant and soil traits in North-West India. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 233: 33-42.
Devi, S., Angrish, R., Madaan, S., Toky, O. P. and Arya, S.S. (2016). Sinker root system in trees with emphasis on soil profile. Plant-Microbe Interaction: An Approach to Sustainable Agriculture, Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. pp 463-474. DOI 10.1007/978-981-10-2854-0_21.
Dong, S.A., Tanji, K., Gratter, S., Karajelii, F. and Partenge, M. (1992). Irrigation and Drainage: Water quality effects on Eucalyptus - saving a threatened resource - in search of solutions, ASCE, New York, USA., pp 164-170.
Dubey, K. (2012). SWOT analysis for the application of biodrainage technology to phyto remediate water logged sites. Int. J. Soc. Forest., 5(2): 47-59.
Dye, P.J. (1996) Response of Eucalyptus grandis trees to soil water deficits. Tree Physiology, 16:(1-2), 233–238. https://doi.org/10.1093/treephys/16.1-2.233
Gafni, A. (1997). Irrigation and the environment: an Israeli perspective. Proceeding of the ANCID Conference, Deniliquin, NSW, Australia.
Gafni, A. and Zohar, Y. (2007). Hydrological and salinity impacts of a bio-drainage strategy application in the Yizre’el Valley, Israel. Hydrol. Process., 21: 2164–2173.
Gill, H.S. and Abrol, I.P. (1993) Afforestation and amelioration of salt-affected soils in India. Productive use of saline land. ACIAR proceedings No. 42, Canberra, pp 23–27
Gill, H.S., Abrol, I.P. and Gupta, R.K. (1990). Afforestation of Salt-affected soils. CSSRI, Karnal, pp 1-6.
Gupta, B. and Huang, B. (2014). Mechanism of salinity tolerance in plants: Physiological, Biochemical, and Molecular Characterization. International Journal of Genomics. Volume 2014: Article ID 701596, 18 pageshttp://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/701596
Gupta, S.K. (2005). A critical analysis of bio-drainage with special reference to Indian experiences. Souvenir: all India seminar reclamation of waterlogged saline soils through drainage. Institution of Engineers (Kota Chapter), Kota, pp 81–96.
Gupta, S.K. (2016) Integrated drainage solutions for waterlogged saline lands. Innovative Saline Agriculture, 2016: 183-200. DOI 10.1007/978-81-322-2770-0_9.
Gupta, S.K. and Goyal, M.R. (2017) Soil Salinity Management in Agriculture: Technological Advances and Applications - Innovations in Agricultural & Biological Engineering CRC Press, 2017. ISBN 1315341778, 9781315341774.
Heuperman, A.F. (1992). Trees in irrigation areas: the bio-pumping concept. Trees and Natural Resources, 34: 20–25.
Heuperman, A.F., Kapoor, A.S. and Denecke, H.W. (2002). Biodrainage – principles, experiences, and applications. Knowledge synthesis report No. 6. International Programme for Technology and Research in Irrigation and Drainage (IPTRID), IPTRID Secretariat, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.
Hirons, A. and Thomas, P.A. (2018). Tree water relations. Applied Tree Biology, John Wiley & Sons, 2018, pp 239.
Hua, Y.Y., Yong, F.D., Qiang, X.Z., Qing, C.F. (2006). Effects of waterlogging on the gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and water potential of Quercus variabilis and Pterocarya stenoptera , Chin J. Plan. Ecolo., 30(6): 960-968.
Hultine, K.R., Williams, D.G., Burgess, S.O.S. and Keefer., T.O. (2003). Contrasting patterns of hydraulic redistribution in three desert phreatophytes. Oecologia. 135: 167–175.
Kamra, S.K. (2013). Role of farmers’ participation for effective management of groundwater recharge structures in Haryana. Proceedings of Workshop on ‘Roadmap for sustainable groundwater resources in Punjab and Haryana. Organized by CGWB North West Region, Chandigarh, India, February 27, pp 88–99.
Kamra, S.K., Satyendra Kumar, Neeraj Kumar and Dagar, J.C. (2019). Engineering and biological approaches for drainage of irrigated lands. Research Developments in Saline Agriculture. Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.
Khamzina, A., Lamers, J.P.A., Martius,C., Worbes, M. and Vlek, P.L.G. (2006). Potential of nine multipurpose tree species to reduce saline groundwater tables in the lower Amu Darya River region of Uzbekistan. Agroforest Syst. 68: 151–165. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10457-006-9006-9
Lal, R. (2009). Carbon sequestration in saline soils. J. Soil salinity water quality, 1(1-2): 30-40.
Lauchli, A. and Epstein, E. (1990). Plant responses to saline and sodic conditions. Agricultural salinity assessment and management. American Society of Civil Engineers. New York, pp 113-137.
Livesley, S.J., Baudinette, B. and Glover, D. (2014) Rainfall interception and stem flow by eucalypt street trees – The impacts of canopy density and bark type. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 13(1): 192-197
Long, Y.W., Taib S.N.L. and Selaman, O.S. (2017) Evaluation of Critical Parameters to Improve Slope Drainage System. Hindawi Advances in Civil Engineering, 2017 : 3796423, (1-9). https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/3796423.
Mahmood, K., Jim, M., Collopy, J. and P. Slavich. (2001). Groundwater uptake and sustainability of farm plantations on saline sites in Punjab province, Pakistan. Agricultural Water Management, 48: 1–20.
Marcar, N.E. and Crawford, D.F. (2004). Trees for saline landscapes. Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation (RIRDC), Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, pp 235.
Masilamani, P. and Santhana Bosu, S. and Annadurai, K. (2003). Bio drainage for degraded drainage problem lands. Leisa India, 5: 19.
Masilamani, P., Bhaskar, M., Vallal Kannan, S., Alex Albert and Vinothini, R. (2019). Eualyptus spp. Wetland Agroforestry: A case study of ecological benefits and site productivity. Abstract in proceedings on 28th National Conference on Farmers Friendly Soil and Water Conservation Technologies for mitigating climate change Impact, held on 31.1.2019 to 2.2.2019 at ICAR-IISWC, Regional Centre, Udhagamandalam, pp 117.
McElrone, A.J., Choat, B., Gambetta, G.A. and Brodersen, C.R. (2013). Water uptake and transport in vascular plants. Nature Education Knowledge, 4(5): 6.
Mergemann H. and Santer, M. (2000). Ethylene induces epidermal cell death at the site of adventitious root emergence in rice. Plant Physiol., 124: 609-614.
Michael, A.M. (2009). Irrigation: Theory and Practice, second ed. Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi, India.
Myers, B. J., Benyon, R.G., Theiveyanathan, S., Criddle, R.S., Smith, C.J. and Falkiner, R.A. (1998). Response of effluent-irrigated EucalyptusGrandis and Pinusradiata to salinity and vapour pressure deficit. Tree Physiol., 18: 565-573.
Neira, J., Ortiz, M., Morales, L. and Acevedo, E. (2015). Oxygen diffusion in soils: Understanding the factors and processes needed for modeling. Chilean Journal of agricultural research, 75 (Suppl. 1): 35-44.
Nielsen, D.C and Vigil, M.F. (2018) Soil Water Extraction for Several Dryland Crops. Agron. J., 110:2447–2455
NIH (1999). National Institute of Hydrology 1999-2000. Biodrainage. National Institute of Hydrology. Jal Vigyan Bhawan, Roorkee, Uttaranchal.
Nosetto, M.D., Acosta, A.M., Jayawickreme, D.H., Ballesteros, S.I., Jackson, R.B. and Jobbagy, E.G. (2013). Land-use and topography shape soil and groundwater salinity in Central Argentina. Agricultural Water Management, 129: 120-129.
Nosetto, M.D., Jobbagy, E.G., Toth, T. and Jackson, R.B. (2008). Regional patterns and controls of ecosystem salinization with grassland afforestation along a rainfall gradient. Global Biochemical Cycles. https://doi.org/10.1029/2007GB003000
Pancel L. (2015) Basic Outline of Tree Plantations in the Tropics. In: Pancel L., Köhl M. (eds) Tropical Forestry Handbook. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
Parelle, J., Roudaut J.P. and Ducrey, M. (2006). Light accumulation and photosynthetic response of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) sapling under artificial shading or natural Mediterranean conditions. Annals of Forest Science, 63: 257-266.
Parent, C., Capelli, N., Berger, A., Crevecoeur, M. and Dat, J.F. (2008). An overview of plant responses to soil waterlogging. Plant stress, 2(1): 20-27.
Parida, A. K., Das, A. B. and Mohanty, P. (2004). Investigations on the antioxidative defence responses to NaCl stress in a mangrove, Bruguiera parviflora: differential regulations of isoforms of some antioxidative enzymes. Plant Growth Regulation, 42: (3) 213–226.
Parkash, V. and Mohan, C. (2016). Waterlogging and salinity: Issues and challenges in restoring the land resource. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Development, 3(5): 341-344.
Patil, B.N., Patil, S.G., Hebbara, M., Manjunatha, M.V., Gupta, R.K. and Minhas, P.S. (2005). Bio-ameliorative role of tree species in salt-affected Vertisols of India. J. Trop. For. Sci., 17: 346–354.
Pezeshki, SR. (1996). Responses of three bottomland species with different flood tolerance capabilities to various flooding regimes. Wetlands Ecology and Management 4 : 245-256.
Ram, J., Dagar, J.C., Khajanchi, L., Singh, G., Toky, O.P., Tanwar, V.S., Dar, S.R. and Chauhan, M.K. (2011). Biodrainage to combat waterlogging, increase farm productivity and sequester carbon in canal command areas of northwest India. Current Sci., 100(11): 1673-1680.
Ram, J., Dagar, J.C., Singh, G., Lal, K., Tanwar, V.K., Shoeran, S.S., Kaledhonkar, M.J., Dar, S.R. and Kumar, M. (2008). Biodrainage: ecofriendly technique for combating waterlogging and salinity. Technical Bulletin: CSSRI/ Karnal/ 9/ 2008, pp 24.
Ram, J., Garg, V.K., Toky, O.P., Minhas, P.S., Tomar, O.S., Dagar, J.C. and Kamra, S.K. (2007). Biodrainage potential of Eucalyptus tereticornis for reclamation of shallow water table areas in north-west India. Agroforest Syst., 69: 147–165.
Raouf, A.N., Al-Homaidan, A.A. and Ibraheem I. B. M. (2012). Agricultural importance of algae. African Journal of Biotechnology, 11(54): 11648-11658, DOI: 10.5897/AJB11.3983
Ren, S., White, D.A., Xiang, D., Short, T.M., Xiao, W., Chen, J., Deng, Z. and Yang, Z. (2019). Simple model of evapotranspiration by Eucalyptus plantations for data poor areas and tested using water balance data from a small catchment in Guangxi, China. Australian Forestry, 82 (Suppl.1): 66-79, DOI: 10.1080/00049158.2018.1555733
Richards, L.A. (1954). Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkali soils. USDA Handbook No. 60 Washington, DC. US Government Printing Office.
Ritzema, H.P. (1994). Drainage principles and applications. International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement, P.O. Box 45. 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands. pp 544.
Ritzema, H.P., Kselik, R.A.L. and Chanduvi, F. (1996) Drainage of Irrigated Lands: A Manual. Irrigation and water management Training manual No. 9. FAO of the United Nations, Rome.
Ritzema, H.P., Satyanarayana, T., Raman, S. and Boonstra, J. (2008). Subsurface drainage to combat waterlogging and salinity in irrigated lands in India: lessons learned in farmers’ ?elds. Agric. Water Manag., 95:179–189.
RRSSC. (2009). Assessment of waterlogging and salt and/ or alkaline affected soils in the commands of all major and medium irrigation projects in the country using satellite remote sensing. Country Report. Government of India Regional Remote Sensing Service Centre. Indian Space Research Organisation, Jodhpur, India.
Samraj, P. (1984). A review of Eucalyptus globules Labill (Blue gum) Plantation in the Nilgiris. Proc. Workshop on Eucalyptus plantation, Bangalore, India, 29 June 1984. pp 19-48.
Sarkar, A., Banik, M., Ray, R. and Patra, S. (2018). Soil moisture and groundwater dynamics under biodrainage vegetation in a waterlogged land. Int. J. Pure Appl. Biosci., 6:1225–1233.
Schofield, R.V. and Kirby, M.J. (2003). Application of salinization indicators and initial development of potential global soil salinization scenario under climatic change. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 17: 1078.
Singh, A. (2013). Groundwater modelling for the assessment of water management alternatives. J. Hydrol., 481: 220–229.
Singh, A. (2017). Waterlogging and Salinity Management for Sustainable Irrigated Agriculture. II: Engineering Measures and Biodrainage. J. Irrig. Drain Eng., 143(9): 04017036 (1-7). DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)IR.1943-4774.0001227.
Singh, G. and Lal, K. (2018). Review and case studies on biodrainage: An alternative drainage system to manage waterlogging and salinity. Irrigation Drainage, 67: 51–64.
Singh, G., and Singh, N.T. (1993). Mesquite for the revegetation of salt lands. Technical bulletin No. 18, CSSRI, Karnal, India, pp 24.
Singh, Y.P., Sharma, D.K., Singh, G., Nayak, A.K., Mishra, V.K. and Singh, R. (2008). Alternate land use management for sodic soils. CSSRI Technical Bulletin No. 2/ 2008. CSSRI, Karnal, pp 16.
Stephen, S.O., Burgess, S.S.O., Adams, M.A., Turner, N.C., White, D.A. and Ong, C.K. (2001). Tree roots: conduits for deep recharge of soil water. Oecologia, 126: 158–165.
Stirzaker, R., Vertessy, R. and A. Sarre. (2002). Trees, water and salt – an Australian guide to using trees for healthy catchments and productive farms. Joint Venture Agroforestry Program; Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, pp 144.
Tang, B., Shang-zhong, XU., Zou, XL., Zheng, YL., Qiu, FZ (2010). Changes of antioxidative enzymes and lipid peroxidation in leaves and roots of waterlogging-tolerant and waterlogging-sensitive maize genotypes at seedling stage. Agric. Sci China, 9: 651-661.
Toky, O.P., Angrish, R., Datta, K.S., Arora, V., Rani, C., Vasudevan, P. and Harris, P.J.C. (2011). Biodrainage for preventing waterlogging and concomitant wood yields in arid agro-ecosystems in North-Western India. Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research, 70: 639-644.
Trabado, I.G. and Wilstermann, D. (2009). Eucalyptus Universalis. Global cultivated eucalypt forests map 2008. GIT Forestry Consulting’s Eucalyptologics: Information resources on Eucalyptus cultivation worldwide.
Vargas, R., Pankova, E.I., Balyuk, S.A., Krasilnikov, P.V. and Khasankhanova, G.M. (2018). Handbook for saline soil management. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and Lomonosov Moscow State University.
Vartapetian, B.B. (2006). Plant anaerobic stress as a novel trend in ecological physiology, biochemistry, and molecular biology : 2. Further development of the problem. Russisn Journal of plant physiology, 53: 711-738.
Vasellati, V., Oesterheld, M., Medan, D., Loreti, J. (2001) Effects of Flooding and Drought on the Anatomy of Paspalumdilatatum, Annals of Botany, 88(3): 355–360, https://doi.org/10.1006/anbo.2001.1469
Venkatraman, K. and Ashwath, N. (2016). Transpiration in 15 Tree Species Grown on a Phytocapped Landfill Site. Hydrol. Current Res., 7(2): 1000236 (1-13). DOI: 10.4172/2157-7587.1000236.
Wicke, B., Smeets, E.M.W., Akanda, R., Stille, L., Singh, R.K., Awan, A.R., Mahmood, K. and Faaij, A.P.C. (2013). Biomass production in agroforestry and forestry systems on salt affected soils in south Asia: Exploration of GHG balance and economic performance of three case studies. J. Environ. Mgt., 127: 324-334.
Xu, L., Du, H. and Zhang, X. (2019) Spatial Distribution Characteristics of Soil Salinity and Moisture and Its Influence on Agricultural Irrigation in the Ili River Valley, China. Sustainability, 2019: (11) 7142 (1-17). doi:10.3390/su11247142
Zohar, Y., Gafni, A., Morris, J. and Shalhevet, S. (2008). Eucalyptus plantations in Israel: an assessment of economic and environmental viability. New Forests, 36: 135–157.
This work is licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) © Author (s)