Sapana Yadav Shreoshi Haldar Deepshikha Animesh Kumar Mohapatra


Monocrotophos, an organophosphate pesticide is used frequently in paddy fields of India. Although its impact of toxicity has been reported in many organisms, its effect on digestive and respiratory organs in Anabas testudineus is scanty. The Present investigation was conducted to evaluate the impact of histopathological and biochemical indices on freshwater fish A.testudineus exposed to sub-lethal concentration (45 ppm) of an organophosphorous pesticide monocrotophos (MT). Severe histoarchitectural and biochemical changes were observed in fishes exposed to monocrotophos when compared to fishes of control group. Exposure of fishes to the pesticide resulted in induction of histological abnormalities in gills, stomach and intestine. This was accompanied with reduction in total protein content and an elevation in catalase activity in gills, stomach and intestine. These structural alterations of the gills, stomach and intestine could affect respiration, digestion and absorption of nutrients which in turn could adversely affect growth and survival of the freshwater fish A. testudineus. The result of this investigation serves as a biomonitoring tool for the effects of organophosphorous pesticide MT on the aquatic biota.


Download data is not yet available.




Catalase, Gills, Histopathology, Intestine, Monocrotophos, Protein, Stomach

Aebi, H. E. (1983). Catalase. In: Bergmeyer, H.U., Ed., Methods of Enzymatic Analysis, Verlag. Chemie., Weinhem, 273- 286.
Al-Ghanin, K. A., Al-Kahem Al-Balawi, H. F., Al-Akel, A. S., Al-Misned, F. A. Z. And Annazri, A. (2008). Ethological response, haematological and biochemical profiles of carp, Cyprinus carpio exposed to trichlorfon. J. Food Agri. Environ. 6 (3 & 4), 473 – 479.
Al-Kahtani, M. A. (2011). Effect of an insecticide Abamectin of some biochemical characteristics of Talapia fish, Orechromis niloticus. Amer. J. Agri. Biol. Sci. 6 (1): 62 – 68.
Ansari, S. and Ansari, B. A. (2014). Toxic effect of alphamethrin on catalase, reduced glutathione and lipid peroxidation in the gill and liver of zebra fish, Danio rerio. World J. Zool. 9 (3): 155 – 161.
Bartoskova, M., Dobsikova, R., Stancova, V., Zivna, D., Blahova, J., Marsalek, P., Zelníckova, L., Bartos, M., Di Tocco, F. C., Faggio, C. (2013). Evaluation of ibuprofen toxicity for zebrafish (Danio rerio) targeting on selected biomarkers of oxidative stress. Neuro. Endocrinol. Lett. 34:102–108
Bradford, M. M. (1976). A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Analytical Biochemistry, 72 (1–2): 248-254.
Cengiz, E. and Unlu, E. (2003). Histopathology of gills in mosquito fish, Gambusia affinis after long term exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of malathion., J. Environ. Sci. Healt. B., 38(5): 581-589.
Cengiz, E. I. and Unlu, E. (2006). Sub-lethal effects of commercial Deltamethrin on the structure of the gill, liver and gut tissues of mosquito fish Gambusia affinis: a microscopic study. Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol., 21: 246-253.
De Silva, P. M., and Samayawardhena, L. A. (2002). Low concentration of lorsban in water result in far reaching behavioral and histological effect in early stage in guppy. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 53: 248 - 254.
Devi, Y., and Mishra, A. (2013). Histopathological alterations in gill and liver anatomy of fresh water, air breathing fish Channa punctatus after Pesticide Hilban (chlorpyrifos) treatment. Adv. Biores. 4 (2): 57– 62.
Faggio, C., Fedele, G., Arfuso, F., Panzera, M., Fazio, F. (2014a). Haematological and biochemical response of Mugil cephalus after acclimation to captivity. Cah Biol Mar 55:31–36.
Faggio, C., Piccione, G., Marafioti, S., Arfuso, F., Trischitta, F., Fortino, G., Fazio, F. (2014b). Monthly variations of haematological parameters of Sparus aurata and Dicentrarchus labrax reared in Mediterranean land off-shore tanks. Cah. Biol. Mar. 55:437–443.
Gernhofer, M., Pawet, M., Schramm, M., Muller, E. and Triebskorn, R. (2001). Ultrastructural biomarkers as tools to characterize the health status of fish in contaminated streams, J. Aquat. Ecosyst. Stress Recovery, 8: 241-260.
Ghanbahadur, A. and Ghanbahadur, G. (2012). Histopathological effect of organochloride endosulphan. International Journal of Science.1 (2):126-127.
Ghasemzadeh, J., Sinaei, M., Bolouki, M. (2015). Biochemical and histological changes in fish, spotted scat (Scatophagus argus) exposed to diazinon. Bull Environ Contam. Toxicol. 94 (2):164–170.
Gobi, N., Vaseeharan, B., Rekha, R., Vijayakumar, S., Faggio, C. (2018). Bioaccumulation, cytotoxicity and oxidative stress of the acute exposure selenium in Oreochromis mossambicus. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 162:147–151.
Hazarika, A., Sarkar, S. N., Hajare, S., Kataria, M. and Malik, J. K. (2003). Influence of malathionpre-treatment on the toxicity of anilofos in male rats: A biochemical interaction study. Toxicology, 185: 1-8.
Jenkins, F. S., Rajanna, B. J., Shameem, U. and Mahadevi, R. (2003). Effects of sublethal concentration of endosulfan on hematological and serum biochemical parameters in the carp, Cyprinus carpio. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 70, 993-997.
Jha, B. S. and Verma, B. P. (2002). Effect of pesticidal mixture on protein content in the freshwater fish Clarias batrachus , J. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Monit., 12(3): 177-180.
Joseph, B. and Raj, S. J. (2011). Impact of Pesticide Toxicity on selected Biomarkers in fishes. Int. J. Zool. Res., 7(2): 212-222.
Jyothirmayee, S., Janetheophillus, Padma, B. T., Narender, R. and Reddy, P. U. M. (2006). Endosulfan induced changes in esterases of Anabas testudineus and Clarias batrachus. Ind. J. Comp. Anim. Physiol. 24: 95 – 99.
Kalender, S., Ogutcu, A., Uzunhisarciki, M., Acikgoz, F., Durak, D., Ulusoy, Y. and Kalender, Y. (2005). Diazinon induced hepatotoxicity and protective effect of vitamin E on some biochemical indices and ultrastructural changes. Toxicology, 211: 197-206.
Karamati, V., amili, S. and Ramin, M. (2010). Effect of diazinon on catalase antioxidant enzyme activity in liver tissue of Rutilus rutilus. J. Fisheries and Aqu. Sci. 5 (5): 368 – 376.
Karmakar, S., Patra, K., Jana, S., Mandal, D. P., and Bhattacharjee, S. (2015). Exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of malathion induces significant cellular, biochemical and histological alterations in Labeo rohita. YPEST. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pestbp.2015.07.006.
Katuli, K. K., Amiri, B. M., Massarsky, A., Yelghi, S. (2014). Impact of a shortterm diazinon exposure on the osmoregulation potentiality of Caspian roach (Rutilus rutilus) fingerlings. Chemosphere. 108: 396–404.
Maharajan, A. and Parurukmani, P. S. (2012). Effect of Aluminium chloride toxicity against histopathology of gill and liver tissue of Indian major carp, Catla catla (Ham.), Intl. J. Pharm. Bio. Sci., 3(3): 523-530.
Marigoudar, S. R, Nagarjuna, A., Karthikeyan, P., Mohan, D., and Sharma, K. V. (2018). AC SC. ECSN. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. chemosphere. 07.137.
Mishra, D. K., Bohidar, K. and Pandey, A. K. (2006). Histopathological changes in the liver of freshwater teleost, Channa punctatus (Bloch) exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of carbyl and cartap. Aquaculture., 7(1): 81-86.
Mishra, A. K., Mohanty, B. (2008). Acute toxicity impacts of hexavalent chromium on behavior and histopathology of gill, kidney and liver of the freshwater fish, Channa punctatus (Bloch). Environ. Toxicol. Pharmcol. 26:136–141.
Moraes, B. S., Loro, V. I., Ghusczak, L., Pretto, A., Menezes, C., Marchezan, E. and Machado, S. O. (2007). Effects of four rice herbicides on some metabolic and toxicology parameters of teleost fish, Leporinus otusidens. Chemosphere, 68: 1597 – 1601.
Muley, D. V., Karanjkar, D. M. and Maske, S. V. (2007). Impact of industrial effluents on the biochemical composition of freshwater fish, Labeo rohita. J. Environ. Biol. 28, 245-249.
Muthukumaravel, K., sukumaran, M. and Sathick, O. (2013). Studies on the acute toxicity of pesticides on the fresh water fish Labeo rohita. J. Pure Appl. Zool. 1 (2): 185 – 192.
Nagaraju, B. and Rathnamma, V. V. (2013). Effect of profenofos an organophosphate on protein levels in some tissues of freshwater fish Labeo rohita (Ham.). International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 5(1): 276-279.
Ogueji, E. O., Usman, I. B., Auta, J. (2013). Histopathology of liver and gill of Clarias gariepinus - (Burchell 1822) with swollen abdomen following exposure to acute and sub-lethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos-ethyl. Int. J. Basic Appl. Sci. 2: 223.
Oruç, E. (2012). Oxidative stress responses and recovery patterns in the liver of Oreochromis niloticus exposed to chlorpyrifos-ethyl. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 88:678–684.
Pandey, A. K., Mishra, D. K. and Bohidar, K. (2014). Histopathological changes in gonadotrophs of Channa punctatus (Bloch) exposed to sublethal concentration of carbaryl and cartap. J. Exp. Zool. India 17, 451-455.
Prashanth, M. S. and Neelagund, S. E. (2008). Impact of cypermethrin on enzyme activities in the freshwater fish Cirrhinus mrigala (Ham.)., J. Caspian. J. Env. Sci., 6(2): 91-95.
Rao, A. S. and Pillala, R. R. (2001). The concentration of pesticides in sediments from Kolleru Lake in India. Pest Manag. Sci. 57, 620-624.
Ravanaiah, G. and Narasimha Murthy, C. V. (2010). Impact of aquaculture and industrial pollutants of Nellore district on histopathological changes in the liver and intestine tissue of fish, Tilapia mossambica. National J. Life Sciences, 7 (2): 110 – 115.
Rawat, D. K., Bais, V. S. and Agrawal, N. C. (2002). A correlative study on liver glycogen and endosulfan toxicity in Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch). J. Environ. Biol. 23, 205-207.
Remia, K. M., Logaswamy, S., Logankumar, K. and Rajmohan, D. (2008). Effect of an insecticide (Monocrotophos) on some biochemical constituents of the fish Tilapia mossambica. Poll. Res., 27 (3): 523 - 526.
Rohanker, P., Zane, V., Dabhadkar, D. and Labhsetuwar, N. (2012). Evaluation of impact of phosphomedon on protein status of fresh water fish Channa punctatus., Indian Sci. Res., 3: 123-126.
Rosety-Rodr?? uez, M., Ordoñez, F. J., Rosety, M., Rosety, J. M., Rosety, I., Ribelles, A. and Carrasco, C. (2002). Morpho-histochemical changes in the gills of turbot, Scophthalmus maximus L., induced by sodium dodecyl sulfate. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 51(3):223–228.
Sayeed, I., Parvez, S., Pandey, S., Bin-Hafeez, B. Haque, R. And Raisudin, S. (2003). Oxidative stress biomarkers of exposure to deltamethrin in fresh water fish, Channa punctatus. Bloch. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 56: 295 – 301.
Schwaiger, J., Wanke, R., Adam, S., Pawert, M., Honnen, W. and Triebskorn, R. (1997). The use of histopathological indicators to evaluate contaminant related stress in fish. J. Aquat. Ecosyst. Stress Recovery, 6: 75-86.
Senapati, T., Samanta, P., Mandal, S. and Ghosh, A. R. (2013). Study on histopathological, histochemical and enzymological alterations in stomach and intestine of Anabas testudineus (cuvier) exposed to Almix 20WP herbicide. International Journal of Food, Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences. 3 (2):100–111.
Sharma, R. R., Pandey, A. K. and Shukla, G. R. (2001). Histopathological alterations in fish tissues induced by toxicity. Aquaculture. 2 (1):31–43.
Sulfath, P. P., Hari Sanker, H. S. and Bijoy Nandan, S. (2013). Effect of organochlorine pesticide, lindane on the antioxidant activity of Oreochromis mossambicus. J. Appl. Biol Fish. 1 (1&2): 97 – 105.
Susan, A. T., Veeraiah, K. and Tilak, K. S. (1999). Biochemical and enzymatic changes in tissues of Catla catla exposed to the pyrithroid fenvalerate, J. Ecobiol., 11(2):109-116.
Teh, S. J., Adams, S. M. and Hinton, D. E. (1997). Histopathological biomarkers in feral freshwater fish populations exposed to different types of contaminant stress. Aquat. Toxicol., 37: 51-70.
Tilak, K. S. and Yacob, K. (2002). Toxicity and effect of fenvalerate on fish Ctenopharyngo donidellus, J. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Monit., 12: 9-15.
Tilak, K. S., Veeraiah, K. and Vardhan, K. S. (2003). Toxicity and residue studies of Fenvalerate to the freshwater fish Channa punctatus., Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 71: 1207-1212.
Tilak, K., Rao, K. and Veeraiah, K. (2005). Effects of chlorpyrifos on histopathology of the fish Catla catla., J. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Monit., 15(2): 127-140.
Tiwari, S. and Singh, A. (2009). Changes in some biochemical parameters in the liver and muscle of Colisa fasciatus due to toxicity of ethanolic extract of Narium indicum (Lal Kaner) latex. Nat. Prod. Radi. 8, 48-54.
Tripathi, G. and Singh, H. (2013). Impact of Alphamethrin on biochemical parameters of Channa punctatus. Journal of Environmental Biology, 34: 227-230.
Tripathi, V. K. and Yadav, R. K. (2015). Effect of pesticide (Organophosphorous) on aquatic fish Labeo rohita. Int. J. Chem. Sci. 13 (2): 625 – 640.
Ullah, S. and Zorriehzahra, M. J. (2015). Ecotoxicology: a review of pesticides induced toxicity in fish. Adv. Anim. Vet. Sci. 3, 40-57.
Ullah, R., Zuberi, A., Ullah, S., Ullah, I. and Dawar, F. U. (2014). Cypermethrin induced behavioural and biochemical changes in mahseer, Tor putitora. J. Toxicol. Sci. 39, 829-836.
Van der Oost, R., Beyer, J. and Vermeulen, N. P.E. (2003). Fish bioaccumulation and biomarkers in environmental risk assessment: a review. Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 13: 57 – 149.
Velmurugan, B., Selvanayagam, M., Cengiz, E. I. And Unlu, E. (2007). The effects of monocrotophos to different tissues of freshwater fish Cirrhinus mrigala. Bulletin envi. Conta. Toxicol. 78 (6): 450 – 454.
Venkataramana, G. V., Sandhya Rani, P. N. and Murthy, P. . (2006). Impact of malathion on the biochemical parameters of gobild fish Glossogobius giuris (Ham.), J. Environ. Bio., 27(1): 119-122.
Vishal, T. (2004). Hepatotoxicity of organophosphorus compound malathion on the protein metabolism in Cirrhinus mrigala (Ham.), J. Curr. Sci., 5(2): 661-664.
Yeragi, S. G., Rana, A. M. And Koli, V. A. (2003). Effect of pesticide on protein metabolism of Mudskipper, Boleophthalmus dussumieri. J. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Monit. 13 (3): 211 – 214.
Zahran E, Risha E, Awadin W (2018) Acute exposure to chlorpyrifos induces reversible changes in health parameters of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). 197 (November 2017): 47–59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2018.02.001
Citation Format
How to Cite
Yadav, S., Haldar, S., Deepshikha, & Mohapatra, A. K. (2019). Monocrotophos induced histopathological and biochemical Changes in gills, stomach and intestine of Anabas testudineus (Cuvier). Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 11(2), 534-544. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v11i2.2110
More Citation Formats:
Research Articles