G.M. Bhat M.A. Islam A.R. Malik T.A. Rather F.A. Shah Khan A.H. Mir


Performance of two fodder crops namely, sorghum (Sorghum vulgare L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) was investigated with Willow (Salix alba L.) to evaluate productivity and economics of the silvopastoral agroforestry system in Kashmir valley. The experiment was laid out by planting two year old willows at 2.0m × 2.0m spacing and dividing the main plot into sub-plots of size 8m × 2m each with 5 replications in randomized block design (RDB). The intercrops of sorghum and maize were maintained at 20cm × 10 cm spacing and supplied with recommended doses of fertilizers. The economics of the willow plantation intercropped with fodder crops was compared with sole willow farming by the benefit-cost ratio and net present worth. The study revealed the differential behaviour of Salix alba regarding growth parameters (height, diameter and girth) by different intercrops and various fodder intercrops with respect to yield, above ground biomass, dry matter production and soil nutrient status (pH, organic carbon, available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium). The willow based silvopastoral system was estimated to have benefit-cost ratio of 2.71 with maize and 2.68 with sorghum, while as sole crop the willows accrued a benefit-cost ratio of 2.66. The study is useful in discovering growth of willows, productivity of fodder crops and soil nutrient status under various silvopastoral agroforestry systems for maximizing economic gains. The findings envisaged evidences in favour of adopting willow based silvopastoral agroforestry instead of sole tree farming and the knowledge of interactions will be helpful in proper management of the system for sustained multiple productions.


Download data is not yet available.




Agroforestry, Biomass, Economics, Fodder crops, Silvopastoral, Salix alba, Soil nutrients

Ahmad, S., Khan, P.A., Verma, D.K., Mir, N., Singh, J.P., Dev, I. and Roshetko, J.M. (2017). Scope and potential of hortipastoral systems for enhancing livestock productivity in Jammu and Kashmir. Indian Journal of Agroforestry, 19(1):48-56.
Anon., (2017). India State of Forest Report (ISFR). Forest Survey of India, Dehradun, Uttarakhand.
Anusha, S., Nagaraju, Mallikarjuna, G.B., Bhaskar, V., Gururajkombali and Vishwanath, B.R. (2015). Performance of finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn) in association with different MPTs in agroforestry system. Indian J. of Agroforestry, 17(2): 82-85.
Banyal, R., Masoodi, N.A., Masoodi, T.H., Sharma, L.K. and Gangoo, S.A. (2011). Knowledge and attitude of farmers towards agroforestry practices in north Kashmir- a case study. The Indian Forester, 137(12):1377-1381.
Bhaskar, V., Hanumanthappa, D.C., Bhavya, V., Nagaraju and Somashekar, K.S. (2019). Growth, yield and economics of finger millet (Eleusine coracana) in Melia dubia based agroforestry system. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 8(5): 1945-1950.
Bhat, G.M. and Islam, M.A. (2017). Agroforestry need of hour and methodology for calculation of amount of co2 sequestered by different agroforestry tree species on yearly basis. Integrative Module for Mulberry Based Farming System, pp. 73-79.
Blanc, S., Gasol, C.M., Martínez-Blanco, J., Muñoz, P., Coello, J., Casals, P., Mosso, A. and Brun, F. (2019). Economic profitability of agroforestry in nitrate vulnerable zones in Catalonia (NE Spain). Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, 17(1):1-16
Brown, S.E., Miller, D.C., Ordonez, P.J. and Baylis, K. (2018). Evidence for the impacts of agroforestry on agricultural productivity, ecosystem services, and human well-being in high-income countries: a systematic map protocol. Environmental Evidence, 2018: 7-24.
Chará, J., Reyes, E., Peri, P., Otte, J., Arce, E. and Schneider, F. (2019). Silvopastoral Systems and their Contribution to Improved Resource Use and Sustainable Development Goals: Evidence from Latin America. FAO, CIPAV and Agri Benchmark, Cali, 60 pp.
Current, D., Lutz, E. and Scherr, S.J. (1995). The costs and benefits of agroforestry to farmers. The World Bank Research Observer, 10(2): 151– 180.
Dagar, J.C. (2012). Utilization of degraded lands/ habitats and poor quality water for livelihood security and mitigating climate change. Indian J. of Agroforestry, 14(1): 1-16.
Dar, M., Qaisar, K.N., Ahmad, S. and Wani, A.A. (2018). Inventory and Composition of Prevalent Agroforestry Systems of Kashmir Himalaya. Advances in Research, 14(1): 1-9.
Edje, O.T. (2014). Effects of intercropping maize [Zea mays L.] with pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan L.] on seed yield, litter and fuelwood in Middleveld, Swaziland. African Journal of Applied Agricultural Sciences and Technologies 1(2): 1–8.
Feldhake, C.M., Belesky, D.P., Mathias, E.L. (2008). Forage production under and adjacent to Robinia pseudoacacia in Central Appalachia, West Virginia. Advances in Agroforestry, 4(1):55–66.
Fettweis, U., Bens, O. and Hüttl, R.F. (2005). Accumulation and properties of soil organic carbon at reclaimed sites in the Lusatian lignite mining district afforested with Pinus spp. Geoderma, 129(1-2):81-91
Hanisch, A.L., Negrelle, R.R.B., Bonatto, R.A., Nimmo, E.R. and Lacerda, A.E.B. (2019). Evaluating Sustainability in Traditional Silvopastoral Systems (caívas): Looking Beyond the Impact of Animals on Biodiversity. Sustainability, 2019(11), 3098; doi:10.3390/su11113098.
Islam, M.A., Banyal, R., Rai, R. and Singh, P.K. (2012). Determinant factors of agroforestry adoption in north Kashmir. Indian Journal of Social Research, 53(2):123-129.
Islam, M.A., Masoodi, T.H., Gangoo, S.A., Sofi, P.A., Bhat, G.M., Wani, A.A., Gatoo, A.A., Singh, A. and Malik, A.R. (2015). Perceptions, attitudes and preferences in agroforestry among rural societies of Kashmir, India. Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 7(2): 976-983.
Islam, M.A., Qaisar, K.N. and Bhat, G.M. (2017a). Indigenous knowledge in traditional agroforestry systems of Kashmir valley: current challenges and future opportunities. International Journal of Forestry and Crop Improvement, 8(1): 68-77.
Islam, M.A., Sofi, P.A., Bhat, G.M., Wani, A.A., Gatoo, A.A. Singh, A. and Malik, A.R. (2017b). Public assessment for socioeconomic and environmental services of agroforestry networks in Kashmir Himalaya, India. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 6(10: 410-420.
Islam, M.A., Sofi, P.A., Bhat, G.M., Wani, A.A., Gatoo, A.A., Singh, A. and Malik, A.R. (2016). Prediction of agroforestry adoption among farming communities of Kashmir valley, India: a logistic regression approach. Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 8(4): 2133-2140.
Jain, S.K. and Singh, P. (1999). Performance of intercrops in agroforestry systems. The case study of poplar (Populus deltoides) in Uttar Pradesh (India). Indian Forester, 12(2): 195-205.
Jose, S. and Dollinger, J. (2019). Silvopasture: a sustainable livestock production system. Agroforestry Systems, 93(1): 1–9.
Kareemulla, K., Rai, P., Rao, G.R. and Solanki, K.R. (2002). Economic analysis of silvopastoral system for degraded landed under rain fed conditions. Indian Forester, 128(12): 1346-1350.
Kareemulla, K., Rizvi, R.H., Yadav, R.S., Munnaram and S.K. Dhyani. (2009). Agroforestry for rural development – co-operatives as viable institutions. Agricult. Situ. India., May, 2009, pp. 61-67.
Leakey, R. (1996). Definition of agroforestry revisited. In: Agroforestry today, vol. 8 no: 1.
Leakey, R.B. (2012). Multifunctional agriculture and opportunities for Agroforestry: Implications of IAASTD. Advances in Agroforestry, 9(1):203–214.
Maqbool, M., Rasool, R. and Ramzan, S. (2017). Soil physico-chemical properties as impacted by different land use systems in district Ganderbal, Jammu and Kashmir: India. International Journal of Chemical Studies. 5(4):832-840.
Mir, A.H., Khan, M.A. (2008). Projected benefit-cost analysis of agri-silvicultural system: vegetable crops intercropping with Salix alba (Willow). Journal of Forestry Research, 19(4):335?339.
Moula, E.L. (2005). The economics of tropical agroforestry systems: the case of agroforestry farms in Cameroon. Forest Policy and Economics, 7:199–211
Mughal, A.H. and Bhattacharya, P.K. (2002). Agroforestry Systems Practiced in Kashmir Valley of Jammu and Kashmir. The Indian Forester, 128(8):846-852.
Mughal, A.H., Ara, T. and Bhattacharya, P.K. (2000). Socioeconomic aspects of agroforestry in rural Srinagar of Kashmir valley. The Indian Forester, 126(3):234-240.
Musa, F., Lile, N.A. and Hamdan, D.D.M. (2019). Agroforestry practices contribution towards socioeconomics: a case study of Tawau communities in Malaysia. Agriculture and Forestry, 65(1): 65-72.
Musokwa, M., Mafongoya, P. and Lorentz, S. (2018). Evaluation of agroforestry systems for maize (Zeamays) productivity in South Africa. South African Journal of Plant and Soil, DOI: 10.1080/02571862.2018.1459898.
Nair, P.K.R. (1991). State of the art of agroforestry systems. Forest Ecology and Management, 45: 5-29
Nair, P.K.R. (1998). Directions in tropical agroforestry research: past, present, and future. Agroforestry Systems, 38(1): 223-245.
Nautiyal, S., Maikhuri R.K., Semwal, R.L., Rao, K.S. and Saxena K.G. (1998). Agroforestry systems in the rural landscape – a case study in Garhwal Himalaya, India. Agroforestry Systems, 41: 151–165.
Ong, C.K., Black, C.R., Marshall, F.M. and Corlett, J.E. (1996). Principles of resource capture and utilization of light and water: in Tree Crop Interactions – A Physiological Approach [Eds. C.K. Ong and P. Huxley]. CAB International, Wallingford, U.K., pp. 73-158
Parthiba, K.T. and Rai, R.S.V. (1994). Trees on Farmlands–their effects on soil fertility. Annals of Forestry, 2(1): 44-51.
Pathak, P.S. (1991). Economic analysis of silvopastoral system. Colloquium on Forestry Economics Research in Asia. Bangkok, Thailand (PRC): Faculty of Forestry, Kassetsart University, pp. 1-150.
Quli, S.M.S. and Islam, M.A. (2017). The chronology of genesis and development of agroforestry innovations with special reference to India- a review. Agricultural Situation in India, 74(4): 11-18.
Quli, S.M.S., Islam, M.A. and Singh, P.K. (2017). Mitigating livelihood crisis through agroforestry interventions in rural India. Jharkhand Journal of Development and Management Studies, 15(1):
Reddy, Y.V.R. and Korwar, G.R. (1985). A comparative evaluation in agriculture and silvopastoral systems in drylands. Agricultural Situation in India, 40(8): 705-708.
Reisner, Y., de Filippi, R., Herzog F., Palma J. (2007). Target regions for silvoarable agroforestry in Europe. Ecological Engineering, 29(4): 401-418.
Roy, M.M. (1999). Silvopastoral systems. Agroforestry Today, 11(1-2): 24-26.
Schaffer, C., Eksvärd, K. and Björklund, J. 2019. Can Agroforestry Grow beyond Its Niche and Contribute to a Transition towards Sustainable Agriculture in Sweden? Sustainability, 11(13): 1-14.
Snedecor, G. and Cochran, W.G. (1967). Statistical Methods. Iowa State Univ. Press, Ames, Iowa, USA, 17-36.
Sood, K.K. (2006). The influence of household economics and farming aspects on adoption to traditional agroforestry in Western Himalaya. Mountain Research and Development. 26(2):124-130.
Swinkels, R. and Scherr, S.J. (1991). Economic Analysis of Agroforestry systems: An Annotated Bibliography. ICRAF, Nairobi.
Thomas, T.H. (1990). Agroforestry: does it pay? Outlook in Agriculture, 19(3): 161– 170.
Yadav, A., Gendley, M.K., Sahu, J., Patel, P.K., Chandraker, K. and Dubey, A. (2019). Silvopastoral system: A prototype of livestock agroforestry. The Pharma Innovation Journal, 8(2): 76-82.
Citation Format
How to Cite
Bhat, G., Islam, M., Malik, A., Rather, T., Shah Khan, F., & Mir, A. (2019). Productivity and economic evaluation of Willow (Salix alba L.) based silvopastoral agroforestry system in Kashmir valley. Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 11(3), 743-751. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v11i3.2104
More Citation Formats:
Research Articles