Deepak Rai Kalpana


To obtain the preliminary information regarding various ecological and behavioural aspects of Sambar, an opinion survey through questionnaires was carried out along with periodic fortnightly visits in and around the areas covering Bir Jhunjhunu Conservation Reserve and Bairasar Johad in district Jhunjhunu and Churu of Rajasthan (India) from July, 2018 to December, 2018. During the survey, 173 inhabitants of village Samaspur and 153 inhabitants of village Bairasar were contacted and it was observed that the population of Sambar has declined as compared to its earlier strength as reported by 58.38% inhabitants of village Samaspur and 62.1% inhabitants of village Bairasar. As far as the distribution of Sambar was concerned, 51.4% interviewees of village Samaspur and 54.2% interviewees of village Bairasar reported that Sambar population is randomly distributed in both the study areas. In relation to group size, 62.80% inhabitants of village Bairasar and 64.2% inhabitants of village Samaspur reported that group size of Sambar vary from 5-12 individuals. Further information regarding the crop damage pattern and financial loss was also collected and 61.8% interviewees of village Samaspur and 66% interviewees of village Bairasar were agree on the fact that Sambar causes damage to their crop which results in low to high financial loss. The importance of opinion survey and field survey based monitoring is emphasized for the ecological significance of the species among people of that region.


Download data is not yet available.




Conservation reserve, Group size, Opinion survey, Population, Ungulates

Bagchi, S., Goyal, S.P., and Sankar, K. (2003). Habitat separation among ungulates in dry tropical forests of Ranthambhore National Park, Rajasthan. Tropical Ecology, 44 (2): 175-182.
Bagchi, S., Goyal, S.P., and Sankar, K. (2008). Social organisation and population structure of ungulates in a dry tropical forest in western India (Mammalia, Artiodactyla). Mammalia, 72: 44-49.
Biswas, S. and Sankar, K. (2002). Prey abundance and food habit of tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) in Pench National Park, Madhya Pradesh, India. Journal of Zoology, 256: 411-420. DOI:10.1017/S0952836902000456
Chatterjee, D., Sankar, K., Qureshi, Q., Malik, P.K., and Nigam, P. (2014). Ranging pattern and habitat use of sambar (Rusa unicolor) in Sariska Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan, Western India. DSG Newsletter, 26: 60-71.
Chopra, G. and Rai, D. (2009). A study on the ecology of Nilgai (Boselaphus tragocamelus Pallas) and its status as an unconventional pest of agriculture in and around Beer-Sonty reserve forest, Haryana,
India. Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 1 (2): 245-249.
Choudhary, M. and Shringi, S.K. (2017). Floristic composition of Beer Jhunjhunu Conservation Reserve of Rajasrhan, India. The biobrio, 1: 244-258.
Dev, K. and Singh, P. (2016). Mammalian diversity of Shekhawati region in arid zone of Thar Desert, India. International Journal of Biological Studies, 3: 16-22.
Gopalaswamy, A.M., Karanth, K.U., Kumar, N.S., and Macdonald, D.W. (2012). Estimating tropical forest ungulate densities from sign surveys using abundance models of occupancy. Animal Conservation, 15 (6): 669-679.
Groves, C. and Grubb, P. (2011). Ungulate Taxonomy. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland.
Hamilton-Smith, C. (1827). The class Mammalia. Supplement to the order Ruminantia. The animal kingdom, arranged in conformity with its organization, by the Baron Cuvier, with additional descriptions of all the species hitherto named, and of many not before noticed (E. Griffith, C. Hamilton-Smith, and E. Pidgeon, eds.), Volume IV. G.B.Whittaker, London, United Kingdom. pp.105-165.
Harikumar, G., Thomas, B., Joseph, K.J. and Zacharias, V.J. (1999). Population dynamics of Sambar Cervus unicolor, in Periyar Tiger Reserve. Indian Forester, 125 (10): 995-1003.
Hodgson, B.H. (1841). Classified catalogue of the mammals of Nepal. Journal of Asiatic Society of Bengal, 10: 907-916.
Jain, P., Bhasin, A., Talukdar, G., and Habib, B. (2018). Distribution and population status of Sambar Rusa unicolor (Mammalia: Cetartiodactyla: Cervidae) from Aravalli landscape with a note on its first record from Aravalli Hills of Haryana, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa, 10 (10): 12357-12362.
Johnsingh, A.J.T. (1983). Large mammalian prey–predators in Bandipur. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 80: 1–57.
Johnsingh, A.J.T. and Sankar, K. (1991). Food plants of chital, sambar and cattle on Mundanthurai Plateau, Tamil Nadu, South India. Mammalia, 55 (1): 57-66.
Karanth, K.U. and M.E. Sunquist. (1992). Population structure, density and biomass of large herbivores in the tropical forests of Nagarahole, India. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 8: 21-35.
Kerr, R. (1792). The animal kingdom, or zoological system of the celebrated Sir Charles Linnaeus; Class I. Mammalia; containing a complete systematic description, arrangement, and nomenclature, of all the known species and varieties of the Mammalia, or animals which give suck to their young; being a translation of that part of the Systema Naturae, as lately published, with great improvements, by Professor Gmelin of Goettingen. J. Murray and R. faulder, London, UK.
Lagory, K.E. (1986). Habitat, group size, and the behaviour of white-tailed deer. Behaviour, 98: 168-179.
Leslie, Jr.D.M. (2011). Rusa unicolor (Artiodactyla: Cervidae). Mammalian Species, 43 (871): 1-30. DOI: 10.1644/871.1
Pant, A., Chavan, S.G., Roy, P.S. and Das, K.K. (1999). Habitat analysis for sambar in Corbett National Park using remote sensing and GIS. Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing, 27 (3): 133-139.
Pringle, R.M., Palmer, T.M., Goheen, J.R., Mccauley, D.J. and Keesing, F. (2010). Ecological importance of large herbivores in the Ewaso ecosystem. Smithsonian contributions to zoology, 632:43-53
Rai, D. and Jyoti (2018). Status and ecological aspects of Blackbuck, Antilope cervicapra (Linnaeus, 1758) through opinion surveys in and around Hisar, Haryana (India). Journal of Experimental Zoology India, 21: 1195-1201.
Sankar, K. (1994). The ecology of three large sympatric herbivores (Chital, sambar and nilgai) with special reference for reserve management in Sariska Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan. Ph.D. Thesis. University of Rajasthan, Jaipur.
Sankar, K. and Goyal, S. P. (2004). Ungulates of India. ENVIS Bulletin: Wildlife and protected areas, 7 (1): 163-170.
Schaller, G.B. (1967). 'The deer and the tiger: a study of wildlife in India.' The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Shekhawat, D.S. and Bhatnagar, C. (2014). Guild, status, and diversity of avian fauna in the Jhunjhunu district, Rajasthan, India. Journal of Asia-Pacific Biodiversity, 7 (3): 262-267.
Singh, A., Mukherjee, A., Dookia, S. and Kumara, H.N. (2017). An updated account of mammal species and population status of ungulates in Keoladeo National Park, Bharatpur, Rajasthan. Current Science, 113 (1): 103. DOI: 10.18520/cs/v113/i01/103-111.
Timmins, R.J., Steinmetz, R., Sagar Baral, H., Samba, K.N., Duckworth, J.W., Anwarul, I.M., and Chan, B.P.L. (2015). Rusa unicolor. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
Varman, K.S. and Sukumar, R. (1993). Ecology of sambar in Mudumalai Sanctuary, southern India. In 'Deer of China: biology and management: proceedings of the International Symposium on Deer of China' Elsevier: New York. pp. 273-284.
Citation Format
How to Cite
Rai, D., & Kalpana. (2019). Opinion survey on the ecology of Sambar, Rusa unicolor (Artiodactyla, Cervidae) and its status with respect to crop damage in districts Jhunjhunu and Churu, Rajasthan (India). Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 11(2), 468-477. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v11i2.2092
More Citation Formats:
Research Articles