Migration is the seasonal habitual movement, exhibited by many avian species along a flyway from breeding to wintering grounds and vice versa all over the world. Migratory birds are very sensitive to even small changes in water level which may be affected by flood or drought on their breeding and wintering grounds. High rains during monsoon season can cause flood conditions in the lower hills and Gangetic plains including Haridwar district. In our study, conducted during last ten years (2009-2018), we covered Bheemgoda Barrage and Missarpur Ganga Ghat of Haridwar, Uttarakhand, where 46 species of Migratory (M) and Resident Migratory (RM) wetland birds were observed. Bird survey indicated that there was a significant increase (p = 0.064, t-test) in the population of certain species such as Bhraminy Shelduck (67%), Black Headed Gull (31%), Gadwall (7%), Northern Pintail (59%), Red Crested Pochard (10%) and Tufted Pochard (47%) in Missarpur Ganga Ghat as compared to Bheemgoda Barrage (based on the average abundance of the species observed during study period). It may be pointed out that after flood and loss of vegetated island, there was significant decrease (p= 0.023, t-test) in the population of species such as Black necked stork (76%), Great crested grebe (56), Pallas gull (47%) at Bheemgoda barrage, while some species such as Bar headed goose, Common pochard did not arrive in Bheemgoda barrage after the flood. The study would help to understand the effect of climatic change on water birds species distribution in natural and man-made wetlands.
Avian Diversity, Migration, Population Status, Wetland birds
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