The study is based on grooming activity in different age class members of Semnopithecus entellus entellus all-male bands (AMB). All males seem to reach a peak in grooming frequency during and immediately following puberty and it is suggested that this peak corresponds to a period of establishing coalition bonds. High grooming rates may also be found in young adults who are actively and assertively challenging higher-ranking individuals. Finally, some old males exhibit paternalistic behavior toward young (generally pre-pubertal) males, which includes grooming, co-feeding and active defense by the older male. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis than grooming is an instrumental behaviour analogous to human gift exchange, which can be â€œusedâ€ by an individual for his ultimate benefit.
Semnopithecus entellus, Grooming, Ageing, Jodhpur
Drickamer, L.C. (1976). Quantitative observations of grooming behaviour in free-ranging Macaca Mulatta. Primates, 17: 323-335.
Hutchins, M. and Barash, D.P. (1976). Grooming in primates: Implications for its utilitarian function. Primates, 17: 145-150.
Merrick, N. J. (1977). Social grooming and play behavior of a captive group of chimpanzees. Primates, 18: 215-224.
Mohnot S.M. (1974). Ecology and Behaviour of the common Indian langurs, Presbytis entellus. Thesis, University of Jodhpur, Jodhpur,
Oki, J. and Maeda, Y. (1973). Grooming as a regulator of behavior in Japanese macaques. In Behavioral Regulators in Behavior in Primates (Ed. by C.R. Carpenter), pp. 149-163. â€“ Lewisburg (Bucknell Univ. Press).
Packer, C. (1977). Reciprocal altruism in Papio anubis. â€“ Nature, 265: 441-443.
Rajpurohit,L.S. (1987).Male social Organisation in Hanuman langur, Presbytis entellus, Thesis, University of Jodhpur, Jodhpur,
Rajpurohit,L.S. and Sommer V. (1993). Juvenile male emigration from natal one-male troops in Hanuman langur. In: Pereira, M.E. and Fairbanks, L.A. (eds.), Juvenile Primates. Life history, Development and Behaviour, Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 86-103.
Rajpurohit, L.S., Sharma, G., Devilal, Vijay, P. and Swami, B. and Chena Ram (2010). Recent Survey of Population and its Composition in an around Jodhpur Rajasthan (India). Proc.-97th Ind. Sci. Congr. Held at Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala in January,2010.(p.72).
Roonwal, M. L. and Mohnot, S.M. (1977).Primates of South Asia: Ecology, Sociobiology and Behaviour. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass,
Reynolds, P.C. (1981). On the Evolution of Human Behaviour. Berkeley (Univ. of California Press).
Sade, D.S. (1972). Sociometrics of Macaca mulatta. I : Linkages and cliques in grooming matrices. Folia Primatol., 18: 196-223.
Sharma, Goutam, Chena Ram, Prateek Vijay and L. S. Rajpurohit (2011). Male Monkey Murder During Intergroup Interaction in Free-Ranging Hanuman Langurs, Semnopithecus entellus, Around Jodhpur (Rajasthan). Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 50 (2): p. 1-7.
Smuts, B. (1981). Special relationships between adult male and female Olive baboons (Papio anubis). Ph.D. Thesis, Stanford University.
Sparts, J. (1967). Allogrooming in primates : A review. In Primate Ethology (Ed. by D. Morris), London (Weidenfeld and Nicolson). pp. 148-175.
Vijay, P. (2009). Study on the Cooperative behaviour in Hanuman Langur, (Semnopithecus entellus). J.N.V. University, Jodhpur.
This work is licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) © Author (s)