B.M. Suman Sheeja K Raj


Micronutrients, though needed in smaller amounts, play a major role in the production and productivity of rice. Zn is the fourth most deficient nutrient element in Indian soils and its deficiency causes severe yield reduction in rice. Application of Zn either as foliar spray or soil application caused significant improvement in growth and yield attributes and yield of rice. Similar to that of Zn, B nutrition also caused significant improvement in growth and yield attributes and yield of rice. The review elaborates the effect of Zn and B nutrition on the growth, physiological parameters, yield attributes, yield and quality of rice.


Download data is not yet available.




Growth attributes, Grain quality, Physiological parameters, Yield attributes, Yield

Ahmad, A., Tahir, M., Ullah, E., Naeem, M., Ayub, M., Rehman, H., and Talha, M. (2012). Effect of silicon and boron foliar application on yield and quality of rice. Pak. J. life Soc. Sci. 10 (2): 161-165.
Ali, S., Raza, S.A., Butt, S.J., and Sarwar, Z. (2016). Effect of foliar boron application on rice (Oryza Sativa L.) growth and final crop harvest. Agric. and Food Sci. Res. 3(2): 49-52.
Aravind, P. and Prasad, M.N.V. (2004). Zinc protects chloroplasts and associated photochemical functions in cadmium exposed Ceratophyllum dermesum L., a freshwater macrophyte. Plant Sci. 166: 1321-1327.
Arif, M., Shehzad, M.A., Bashir, F., Tasneem, M., Yasin, G., and Iqbal, M. (2012). Boron, zinc and microtone effects on growth, chlorophyll contents and yield attributes in rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivar. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 11(48): 10851-10858.
Ayad, H.S., Reda, F., and Abdalla M.S.A. (2010). Effect of putrescine and zinc on vegetative growth, photosynthetic pigments, lipid peroxidation and essential oil content of geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L.). World J. Agric. Sci. 6 601- 608.
Bhutto, M.A., Maqsood, Z.T., Arif, S., Riazuddin., Iqbal, S., Mahmood, Q., Akhlaq, A., Bhutto, R., Moheyuddin, K., Mari, A.H., Panhwar, R.N., and Salahuddin, J. (2013). Effect of zinc and boron fertilizer application on uptake of some micronutrients into grain of rice varieties. J. Agric. Environ. Sci, 13 (8): 1034-1042.
Boonchauay, P., Cakmak, I., Rekasem, B., and Pro-U-thai, C. (2013). Effect of different foliar zinc application at different growth stages on seed zinc concentration and its impact on seedling vigour in rice. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 59: 180-188.
Broadley, M.R., White, P.J., Hammond, J.P., Zelko, I., and Lux, A. (2007). Zinc in plants. New phytol. 173: 677-702.
Cakmak.I., Kalayci, M., Ekiz, H., Braun, H.J., Kiline, Y. and Yilmaz, A. (1999). Zinc deficiency as a practical problem in plant and human nutrition in Turkey: A NATO-science for stability project. Field Crop Res. 60: 175-188.
Chaudhary, S.K., Thakur, S.K., and Pandey, A.K. (2007). Response of wet land rice to nitrogen and zinc. Oryza. 44 (1): 31-34.
Dell, B. and Huang, L. (1997). Physiological response of plants to low boron. Plant and soil.193: 103-120.
Fageria, N.K. and Baligar, V.C. (2005). Growth components and zinc recovery efficiency of upland rice genotypes. Brasilia. 40 (12): 1211-1215.
Fageria, N.K., Moreira, A., and Coelho, A.M. (2011). Yield and yield components of upland rice as influenced by nitrogen sources. J. Plant Nutr. 34: 361-370.
Ghasal, P.C., Shivay, Y.S., Pooniya, V., Kumar, P., and Verma, R.K. (2016). Zinc fertilization enhances growth and quality parameters of aromatic rice (Oryza sativa L.). Indian J. Plant Physiol. 21(3): 323-332.
Ghoneim, A.M. (2016). Effect of Different Methods of Zn application on rice growth, yield and nutrients dynamics in Plant and soil. J. Agric. Ecol. Res. Int. 6(2): 1-9.
Hatwar, G.P., Gondane, S.M., Urkade, S.M., and Ahukar, V. (2003). Effect of micronutrients on growth and yield of chilli. Soils Crops 13 (1): 123-125.
Hossain, M., Hannan, M.A., Talukder, N.M., and Hanif, M.A. (2008). Effect of different rates and methods of zinc application on the yield and nutritional qualities of rice cv. BR11. J. Agrofor. Environ. 2 (1): 1-6.
Hussain, M., Khan, M.A., Khan, M.B., Farooq, M., and Farooq, S. (2012). Boron application improves growth, yield and net economic return of rice. Rice Sci. 19 (3): 259-262.
IRRI [International Rice Research Institute] (2000). Nutritional disorders and nutrient management in rice. International Rice Research Institute, Manila, Philipines.
Kalala, A.M., Amuri, N.A., and Semoka, J.M.R. (2016). Sulphur and zinc fertilization effects on growth and yield response of rice. Int. J. Plant. Soil Sci. 11(5): 1-12.
Kumar, D., Kumar, R., Singh, P., and Kumar, P. (2017). Effect of different zinc management practices on growth, yield, protein content, nutrient uptake and economics of rice under partially reclaimed salt affected soil. J. Pharmacognosy and phytochem. 6 (5): 638-640.
Katyal, J.C. and Singh, B. (1992). Availabilty of boron in soils and and uptake by rice as influenced by moisture regime. J. Agric. Res. 48 (3): 303-314.
Khan, M.U., Qasim, M., and Jamil, M. (2002). Response of rice to zinc fertilizer in calcareous soils of D. I. Khan. Asian J. Plant Sci. 1 (1): 1-2.
Khan, M.U., Qasim, M., and Jamil, M. (2004). Effect of zinc on starch content of paddy and zinc content of soil, leaf and root of rice grown in calcareous soils. Int. J. Agric. Biol. 6 (6): 1132-1135.
Khan, R., Gurumani, A.R., Khan, M.S., and Gurumani, A.H. (2009). Residual, direct and cumulative effect of zinc application on wheat and rice yield under rice-wheat system. Soil. Environ. 28 (1): 24-28.
Kulhare, P.S., Tagore, G.S., and Sharma, G.D. (2017). Effect of foliar spray and sources of zinc on yield, zinc content and uptake by rice grown in a vertisol of central India. Int. J. Chem. Stud. 5 (2): 35-38.
Li., Yan., Qin., Suichu., Li, Y., and Qin, S.C. (1999). Effect of rice metabolism and the diagnosis of hidden zinc deficiency in rice. J. Fujian Agric. Univ. 28 (1): 66-67.
Mathpal, B., Srivastava, P.C., Shankdhar, D., and Shankhdhar, S.C. (2015). Improving key enzyme activities and quality of rice under various methods of zinc application. Physiol. Mol. Biol. Plants. 21 (4): 567-572.
Maqsood, M., Irshad, M., Wajid, S.A., and Hussain, A. (1999). Growth and yield response of Basmati-385 (Oryza sativa L.) to ZnSO4 application. Pak. J. Biol. Sci. 2 (4): 1632-1633.
Mengel, K. and Kirkby, E. A. (2001). Boron. Principles of Plant Nutrition (5th ed.). Kluwer Academic Publishers Dordrecht/ Boston/ London, Netherlands
Mohan, A., Tiwari, A., Kumar, M., Pandey, D., Singh, A., and Singh, B. (2017a.) Effect of foliar spray of various nutrients on performance of rainfed rice (Oryza sativa L.). J. of pharmacognosy and phytochem. 6 (5): 2252-2256.
Mohan, A., Tiwari, A., and Singh, B. (2017b). Effect of foliar spray of various nutrients on yield attributes, yield and economics of rainfed rice. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci. 6 (10): 2566-2572.
Mousavi, R.S. (2011). Zinc in crop production and interaction with phosphorous. Aust. J. Basic. Appl. Sci. 5 (9): 1503-1509.
Mustafa, G., Enshanullah., Akbar, N., Qaisrani, S.A., Iqbal, A., Khan, Z.H., Jabran, K., Chattha, A.A., Trethowan, R., Chattha, T., and Atta, B.M. 2011. Effect of zinc application on growth and yield of rice. Int. J. Agro Vet. Med. Sci. 5 (6): 530-535.
Muthukumararaja, T.M. and Sriramachandrasekharan, M.V. (2012). Effect of zinc on yield, zinc nutrition and zinc use efficiency of lowland rice. J. Agric. Technol. 8 (2): 551-561.
Naik, S.K. and Das, D.K. (2007). Effect of split application of zinc on yield of rice (Oryza sativa L.) in an inceptisol. Arch. Agron. Soil Sci. 53: 305-313.
Niaz, A., Ibrahim, M., Nisar, A. and Anwar, S. A. (2002). Boron contents of light and medium textured soils and cotton plants. Int. J. Agric. Biol. 4: 534–536.
Niaz, A., Ranjha, A. M., Rahmatullah, Hannan, A. and Waqas, M. (2007). Boron status of soils as affected by different soil characteristics–pH, CaCO3, organic matter and clay contents. Pak. J. Agric. Sci. 44: 428-435.
Oahiduzzaman, M., Shovon, S.C., Mahjuba, A., Mehraj, H., and Uddin, A. F. M. J. (2016). Different zinc levels on growth, yield and nutrient content of BRRI dhan 33. J. Biosci. Agric. Res. 9 (2): 820-826.
Pervaiz, K., Yousuf, M., Imtiaz, M., Depar, M., Aslam, M., Suleman., and Javed, A.S. (2012). Determining the zinc requirements of rice genotype sarshar evolved at NIA, Tandojam. Sarhad J. Agric. 28 (1):1-7.
Phattarakul, N., Rerkasem, B., and Li, L.J. (2012). Biofortification of rice grain with zinc through zinc fertilization in different countries. Plant soil. 361 (1-2): 131-141.
Potarzycki, J. and Grzebisz, W. (2009). Effect of zinc foliar application on grain yield of maize and its yielding components. Plant Soil Environ. 55 (12): 519-527.
Qadir, J., Awan, I.U., Baloch, M.S., Shah, I.H., Nadim, M.A., Saba, N., and Bakhsh, I. (2013). Application of micronutrients for yield enhancement in rice. Gomal Univ. J. of Res. 29 (2): 9-16.
Rahman, M.T., Jahiruddin, M., Humauan, M.R., Alam, J.M., and Khan, A. A. (2008). Effect of sulphur and zinc on growth, yield and nutrient uptake of boro rice (CV. BRRI dhan 29). J. Soil. Nat. 2 (3): 10-15.
Ramanathan, S., Stalin, P., Thilagavathi, T., Natarajan, K., and Ankorion, Y. (2002). Foliar nutrition of peak on rice. In: Proceeding of the 17th WCSS, 14-21August, Thailand, pp. 2231-2242.
Rani, P.S. and Latha, A. (2017). Effect of calcium, magnesium and boron on nutrient uptake and yield of rice in Kole lands of Kerala. Indian J. Agric. Res., 51 (4) 2017: 388-391.
Rana, W.K. and Khashif, S.R. (2014). Effect of different zinc sources and methods of application on rice yield and nutrient concentration in rice grain and straw. J. Environ. Agric. Sci. 1:9.
Rashid, A. and Rayan, J. (2004). Micronutrient constraints to crop production in soils with Mediterranean type characteristics: A review. J. Plant Nutr. 27:959-975.
Rashid, A., Yasin, A. and Ali, M.A. (2009). Boron deficiency in rice in Pakistan: A serious constraint to productivity and grain quality, In: Ashraf, M., Ozturk, M. and Athar, H.R. (eds), Salinity and Water Stress: Improving Crop Efficiency, Springer Science + Business Media, BV, pp.213-219.
Rashid, A., Muhammad, S. and Rafique, E. (2005). Rice and wheat genotypic variation in boron use efficiency. Soil Environ. 24: 98-102.
Rehman, A., Farooq, M., Cheema, Z.A., Nawaz, A., and Wahid, A. (2014). Foliage applied boron improves the panicle fertility, yield and biofortification of fine grain aromatic rice.J. of Soil Sci. and Plant. Nutr. 14 (3): 723-733.
Rehman, H., Farooq, M., and Basra, S.M.A. (2012). High grain Zn concentration results from increased Zn supply and remobilization during grain filling in water saving rice cultivation [abstract]. In: Abstracts of 14th Congress of soil Science, 12-15 March, 2012, Lahore, Pakistan.
Remesh, R. and Rani, B. (2017). Effect of boron application through soil and foliar methods on the yield attributes and nutrient uptake of wet land rice. Agric. update. 12: 301-304.
Salam, A.M. and Subramanian, S. (1988). Influence of nitrogen, zinc and their interaction on the yield and nutrient uptake of IR20 rice (Oryza sativa) in different seasons. Indian J. Agric. Sci. 58 (3): 190-193.
Sarwar, N., Ali, H., Ahmad, A., Ullah, E., Ahmad, S., Mubeen, K., and Hill, J.E. (2013). Water wise rice cultivation on calcareous soils with the addition of essential micronutrients. J. Anim. Plant. Sci. 23 (1): 244-250.
Shivay, S.Y., Kumar, D., and Prasad, R. (2008). Effect of Zn enriched urea on productivity, zinc uptake and efficiency of an aromatic rice-wheat cropping system. Nutr. Cycl. Agroecosyst. 81: 229-243.
Shivay, Y.S., Kumar, D., and Prasad, R. (2008). Effect of zinc enriched urea on productivity, zinc uptake and efficiency of an aromatic rice-wheat cropping system. Nutr. Cycl. Agroecosyst. 81:229-243.
Shivay, Y.S., Prasad, R., and Anshu, R. (2010). Genotypic variation for productivity, zinc utilization efficiencies and kernel quality in aromatic rice under low available zinc conditions. J. Plant Nutr. 33:1835-1848.
Shivay, Y.S. and Prasad, R. (2012). Zinc coated urea improves productivity and quality of Basmati rice (Oryza sativa L.) under zinc stress conditions. J. Plant Nutr. 35: 928-951.
Shivay, Y.S., Prasad, R., Singh, R.K., and Pal, M. (2015). Relative efficiency of zinc coated urea and foliar application of zinc sulphate on yield, nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, zinc and iron biofortification in grains and uptake by Basmati rice (Oryza sativa L.). J. Agric. Sci. 7 (2): 161-173.
Shukla, A.K. and Behera, S.K. (2011). Zinc management in Indian agriculture. Indian J. Fertil. 7: 14-33.
Singh, A.K., Manibhushan., Meena, M.K., and Upadhyaya, A. (2012). Effect of sulphur and zinc on rice performance and nutrient dynamics in plants and soils of Indo gangetic plains. J. Agric. Sci. 4 (11): 162
Slaton, N.A., Wilson, C.E., Norman, R.J., and Boothe, D.L. (2001). Evaluation of zinc seed treatments for rice. J. Agron. 93: 152-157.
Spraque, H.B. (1951). Hunger Signs in Crops. Mckay, Newyprk, USA.
Srivastava, P.C., Ghosh, D., and Singh, V.P. 1999. Evaluation of different zinc sources for lowland rice production. Biol. Fert. Soils. 30: 168-172.
Sudha, S. and Stalin, P. (2015). Effect of zinc on yield, quality and grain zinc content of rice genotypes. Int. J. Farm Sci. 5 (3): 17-27.
Yadav, G.S., Kumar, D., Shivay, Y.S., and Singh, H. (2010). Zinc-enriched urea improves grain yield and quality of aromatic Rice. Better Crops. 94 (2):6-7.
Yadi, R., Dastan, S., and Yasari, E. (2012). Role of zinc fertilizer on grain yield and some qualities parameters in Iranian rice genotypes. Ann. Biol. Res. 3(9): 4519-4527.
Yu and Bell. (1998). Nutrient deficiency symptoms and boron uptake mechnisms of rice. J. Plant Nutr. 21: 2077-2088.
Citation Format
How to Cite
Suman, B., & Raj, S. (2018). A review on zinc and boron nutrition in rice. Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 10(4), 1180-1186. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v10i4.1897
More Citation Formats:
Research Articles