Field experiment was conducted at Coconut Research Balaramapuram, during Kharif 2017 to study the effect of nutrient levels and schedule of application on the quality parameters of upland rice intercropped in coconut. The experiment was conducted in randomized block design (RBD) with four different nutrient levels and four different schedules of nutrient application. Quality parameters like crude protein and starch content were significantly influenced by nutrient levels. The crude protein content was found to increase with increase in N level, however starch content was found to increase up to 70 kg N and 35 kg K ha-1 and after that a decline in trend was observed. The highest crude protein content (8.38 per cent) was recorded with highest nutrient level, NPK @ 120:30:60 kg ha-1. However, lower nutrient level, NPK @ 70:30:35 kg ha-1 recorded higher starch content (85.03 per cent). Among the schedule of nutrient application, N applied in three equal splits (15 days after sowing (DAS), active tillering and panicle initiation stage), P as basal and K in two equal splits (15 DAS and panicle initiation stage) along with foliar application of 0.2 per cent zinc sulphate and 0.04 per cent sodium borate at 45 DAS recorded the highest crude protein (7.50 per cent) and starch content (84.17 per cent). The study clearly indicated that the increased level of N and K increased the protein content due to the active role of N and K in protein synthesis. However, high rate of N application decreased the starch content. In addition to the application of NPK, foliar nutrition of zinc sulphate and sodium borate at 45 DAS considerably improved the quality of grain by increasing the starch and protein content.
Crude protein content, Nutrient levels, Schedule of nutrient application, Starch content, Upland rice
Aminoff, D., Binkley, W. W., Schaffer, R., and Mowry, R. W. (1970). Analytical methods for carbohydrates. The carbohydrate: Chemistry and Biochemistry. Academic press, New York, pp. 760-764.
Bao, J.S. and Xia, Y.W. (2000). Effects of genotypeÃ—environment interaction on eating and cooking quality of indica rice. J. Zhejiang Univ. Agri. Life Sci. 26: 144-150.
Broadley, M.R., White, P.J., Hammond, J.P., Zelko, I., and Lux, A. (2007). Zinc in plants. New phytol. 173: 677-702.
Cai, C., Wang, J.Y., Zhu, Y.G., Shen, Q., Li, B., Tong, Y.P., and Li Z, S. (2008). Gene structure and expression of high affinity nitrate transport system in rice roots. J. Integ. Plant Biol. 50 (4): 443-451. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00642.x. ...
Chandel, G., Banerjee, S., See, S., Meena, R., Sharma, D.J., and Verulkar, S.B. (2010). Effect of different nitrogen fertilizer levels and native soil properties on rice grain Fe, Zn and protein contents. Rice Sci. 17 (3): 213-227.doi.org/10.1016/S1672-6308(09)60020-2
Dwivedi, A.P., Dixit, R.S., and Singh, G.R. (2006). Effect of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium levels on growth, yield and quality of hybrid rice. Agric. Sci. Digest. 25 (4): 309-310.
Ghasal, P.C., Shivay, Y.S., Pooniya, V., Choudhary, M., and Verma, R.K. (2017). Response of wheat genotypes to zinc fertilization for improving productivity and quality. Arch. Agron. Soil Sci. 63(11): 1597: 1612.doi.org/10.1080/03650340.2017.1289515
GOI [Government of India, Ministry of Agriculture and Farmersâ€™ Welfare]. (2017). Annual Report 2016-2017. Government of India, Ministry of Agriculture and Framerâ€™s Welfare, Krishibhavan, New Delhi, pp.194.
Gowthami, P., Rao, G.R., Rao, K.L.N., and Lal, A.M. (2018). Effect of foliar application of potassium, boron and zinc on quality and seed yield in soybean. Int. J. Chem. Stud. 6 (1): 142-144.
Grag, O.K., Sharma, A.N., and Kona, G.R.S.S. (2005). Effect of boron on the pollen viability and yield of rice plants (Oryza sativa L. var. Jaya). Plant Soil. 52: 591-594.
Gunes, A., Alpalsan, M., Inal, A., Adak, M.S., Eraslan, F., and Cicek, N. (2003). Effects of boron fertilization on the yield and some yield components of bread and durum wheat. Turkish J. Agric. For. 27: 329-335.
Hu-Lin, H., You-Zhang, W., Xiao-E, Y., Ying, F., and Chung-Yong, W. (2007). Effects of different nitrogen fertilizer levels on Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn concentrations in shoot and grain quality in rice (Oryza sativa). Rice Sci. 14(4): 289-294.
IPI [The International Potash Institute]. (2013). Potassium â€“ the quality element in crop production. Retrieved April 30 2018 from https:/www.ipipotash.org/â€¦/406.Potassium-the-quality-element-in-cropproduction. p...
IRRI [International Rice Research Institute]. (2000). Nutritional disorders and nutrient management in rice. International Rice Research Institute, Manila, Philipines.
Javeed. A., Gupta, M., and Gupta, V. 2017. Effect of graded levels of N, P and K on growth and quality of fine rice cultivar (Oryza sativa L.) under subtropical conditions. Sci. Soc. Adv. Res. Soc. Change Int. J. Manag. 3(1):18.Retrieved April 03 2018 from http://www.ssarsc.orgdocuments/1management_effect_graded_levels24_4_17.pdf
Keram, K.S., Sharma, B.L., Kewat, M.L., and Sharma, G.D. (2014). Effect of zinc fertilization on growth, yield and quality of wheat grown under agro-climatic condition of Kymore plateau of Madhya Pradesh. India. The Bioscan. 9 (4): 1479-1483.
Khan, R., Gurumani, A.R., Khan, M.S., and Gurumani, A.H. (2009). Residual, direct and cumulative effect of zinc application on wheat and rice yield under rice-wheat system. Soil. Environ. 28 (1): 24-28.
Li., Yan., Qin., Suichu., Li, Y., and Qin, S.C. (1999). Effect of rice metabolism and the diagnosis of hidden zinc deficiency in rice. J. Fujian Agric. Univ. 28(1):66-67
Ling, Z., Chong-Hua, X.I.E., Wei, L.I., and Guo-tao, Y. (2008). Effect of nitrogen and potassium on starch content and activities of starch synthase in grain of hybrid rice BYOU. Chinese. J. Rice Sci. 22 (5): 551-554
Mo, H.D. (1993). Quality improvement of rice grain in China. Sci. Agric. Sin. 26: 8-14.
Mohan, A., Tiwari, A., Kumar, M., Pandey, D., Singh, A., and Singh, B. (2017). Effect of foliar spray of various nutrients on performance of rainfed rice (Oryza sativa L.). J. of pharmacognosy and phytochem. 6 (5): 2252-2256. doi.10.13140/RG.2.2.24110.
Murthy, K.M.D., Rao, A.U., Vijay, D., and Sridhar, T.V. (2015). Effect of levels of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium on performance of rice. Indian J. Agric. Res. 49 (1): 83-87.
Narendra, K., Ritika, M., Shankdhar, S.C., and Deepti, S. (2015). Effect of foliar application of boron on growth, yield, chlorophyll, amylose and nitrate reductase activity in rice. Oryza. 52 (2): 123-130.
Nawaz, M., Wahla, A.J., Kashif, M.S., Waqar, M.Q., Ali, M.A., and Chadhar, A.R. (2017). Effect of exogenous nitrogen levels on the yield of rice grain in Sheikhpura, Pakistan. Pakist. J. Agric. Res. 30 (1): 85-92.
Rashid, A., Yasin, A. and Ali, M.A. (2009). Boron deficiency in rice in Pakistan: A serious constraint to productivity and grain quality, In: Ashraf, M., Ozturk, M. and Athar, H.R. (eds), Salinity and Water Stress: Improving Crop Efficiency, Springer Science + Business Media, pp.213-219.
Samonte, S.O.P.B., Wilson, L.T., Medley, J.C., Pinson, S.R.M., Clung, A.M.M.C., and Lales, J.S. (2006). Nitrogen utilization efficiency: relationships with grain yield, grain protein, and yield related traits in rice. Agro. J. 98: 168-176.
Simpson, J. E., Adair, C. H., Kohler, G. O., Dawson, E. N., Debald, H. A., Kester, E. B. and Klick, J. T. (1965). Quality evaluation studies of foreign and domestic rice. Tech. Bull. No.1331. Services, U.S.D.A., pp.1-86.
Sudha, S. and Stalin, P. (2015). Effect of zinc on yield, quality and grain zinc content of rice genotypes. Int. J. Farm Sci. 5 (3): 17-27.
Thao, H.M., Hong, N.H., Tuyen, N.T., Toan, N.V., and Quyen, L.N. (2015). Study on the effect of some of N, P, K fertilizer compounds on the yield and quality of Bp53 rice variety. J. Agric. Tech. 11(8): 2149-2156.
Tisdale, S.L., Nelson, W.L., and Beaton, J.D. (1985). Soil fertility and fertilizers (4thedn.), Mac Millon.
USDA [United States Department of Agriculture]. (2018). World: Rice Area, yieldandproduction. Retrieved May 28 2018 from http://apps.fas.usda.gov/psdoline/reportHandler.ashx?.
Zhou, G.Q., Xu, M.L., Tan, Z., and Li, X. (1997). Effects of ecological factors of protein and amino acids of rice. Acta Ecol. Sin. 17: 5.
This work is licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) Â© Author (s)