Navneet Cheema Anita Bhatnagar Abhay Singh Yadav


The aim of the present study was to analyze the impact of sub-lethal toxicity of chlorpyrifos, one of the largest market selling agrochemical on physiological parameters of teleost fish, Cirrhinus mrigala addressing the possible causative involvement in behavioural and locomotion responses. Primarily, the acute toxicity (96h LC50) test was carried out and the value calculated by probit analysis was found to be 0.44 mg L-1. Further, one-fifth, one-tenth and one-twentieth of 96 h LC50 were selected as sublethal concentrations for sub acute studies. The experiment was carried out for 21 days and the alternative behaviour was recorded in terms of Air Ingulping (AI), Operculum Beat Frequency (OBF), Surfacing Movement (SM), Vertical Hanging (VH) and Tail Beat Frequency (TBF) on duration day 2, 4, 7, 14 and 21. Significant effect of both the concentrations and duration was observed in fishes treated with selected doses of chlorpyrifos. It was found that AI, OBF, SM, VH, TBF was highest on day 7 at 0.08 mg L-1 concentration of Chlorpyrifos. The findings revealed that there is a need to control the use of chlorpyrifos because of its toxicity. All the fish avoidance tests proved to be an important predictive and sensitive biomarker in aquatic monitoring and pollution management.


Download data is not yet available.




Behavioural alterations, Biomarkers, Chlorpyrifos, Cirrhinus mrigala, Concentration, Dependent response

Ali, D., Nagpure, N.S., Kumar, S., Kumar, R. and Kushwaha, B. (2009). Genotoxicity assessment of acute exposure of chlorpyriphos to fresh water fish Channa punctatus (Bloch) using micronucleus assay and alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis. Chemosphere. 71: 1823-1831.
American Public Health Association, American Water Works association and Water Pollution Control Federation, APHA (2012). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 20th Ed. American Public Health Association, Washington DC, USA.
Amitai, G., Moorad, D., Adani, R., and Doctor, B.P. (1998). Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase by chlorpyrifos-oxon.Biochem. Pharmacol. 56: 293-299.
Berg, G.L. (1986). Farm Chemical Handbook. Meister Publising Company. Washington DC.
Bhatnagar., A., Yadav, A., Cheema, N. (2016). Genotoxic Effects of Chlorpyrifos in Freshwater Fish Cirrhinus mrigala using micronucleus assay. Advances in Biology. Hindawi Publications. Article ID 9276963, http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/9276963
Bhatnagar, A., Cheema, N., Yadav, A. (2017). Alterations in Haematological and Biochemical Profile of Freshwater Fish, Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton) Exposed to Sub-lethal Concentrations of Chlorpyrifos. Nat. Env. Poll. Tech. 16(4): 1189-1194.
Chawanrat, S., itiocVoravit, C., Chutarat, S., William, F., and Beamish, H. (2007). Variability in acetylcholinesterase upon exposure to chlorpyrifos and carbaryl in hybrid catfish. Sci. Asia. 33: 301-305.
Cheema, N., Bhatnagar, A., and Yadav, A. (2014). Changes in Growth Performance and Biochemical Status of Fresh Water Fish Cirrhinus mrigala exposed to sublethal doses of Chlorpyrifos. Int. J. Agri. F. Sci. Tech. 5 (6):619-630.
Cohn, J., and MacPhail, R.C. (1996). Ethological and experimental approaches to behavior analysis: implications for ecotoxicology. Environ. Health Perspect. 104: 299–304.
Dell’Omo, G., Bryenton, R., and Shore, R.F. (1997). Effects of exposure to an organophosphate pesticide on behavior and acetylcholinesterase activity in the common shrew, Sorexaraneus. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 16: 272–276.
Drummond, R.A., and Russom, C.L. B. (1990). Behavioral toxicity syndromes, a promising tool for assessing toxicity mechanisms in juvenile fat-head minnows. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 9: 37–46.
Dube, P.N., Hosetti, B.B. (2010). Behaviour surveillance and oxygen consumption in the freshwater fish Labeorohita(Hamilton) exposed to sodiumcyanide. Biotechnol. Anim. Husb. 26 (1–2):91–103.
Dutta, H.M. (1995). A composite approach for evaluation of the effects of pesticides on fish. In: Fish Morphology Horizon for New Research, Dutta JS and Dutta HM (Eds), Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi. 249-271.
Finney, D.J. (1980). Probit Analysis. 3rd Edition, Cambridge University Press, London. 330.
Hansen, J.A., Marr, J.C.A., Lipton, J., Cacela, D., and Bergman, H.L. (1999). Difference in neurobehavioural response of Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha,and rainbow trout, Oncorynchus mykiss exposed to copper and cobalt, behavioural avoidance. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 18: 1972–1978.
Kalavathy, K., Sivakumari, A.A., and Chandran, R. (2001). Toxic effect of the pesticide dimethoate on the fish, Sarotherodonmossambicus. J Eco. Res. 2(152): 27-32.
Kumar, A, Nadda G and Chanker A (2004). Determination of chlorpyrifos 20% EC (Dursban 20 EC) in scented rose and its products. J. Chromatogr. 1050:193-199.
Kumar, A. (2010). Protenofos toxicity to the eastern rainbow fish (Melanotaeniaduboulayi). Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 17(9): 1799-1800.
Kumar, M., Kumar, P., Devi, S. (2015). Toxicity of Copper Sulphate on Behavioural Parameter and Respiratory Surveillance in Freshwater catfish, Clariasbatrachus (Lin.). Res J. Chem. Environ. Sci.3(1): 22-28.
Loureiro, S., Soares, A.M.V.M., and Nogueira., A.J.A. (2005). Terrestrial avoidance behaviour tests as screening tool to assess soil contamination. Environ. Pol. 138:121-131.
Lukkari, T., Aatsinki, M., Väisänen, A., and Haimi, J. (2005). Toxicity of copper and zinc assessed with three different earthworm tests. App. Soil Eco. 3(1): 133-146.
Marrs, T.C. (1993). Organophosphate poisoning. Pharma. Thera. 58:51-66.
Martin, J. (2003). A portrait of locomotor behavior in Drosophila determined by a video-tracking paradigm. Beh. Prot.67( 2):207-219.
Murthy, A.S. (1987). Sub lethal effects of pesticides on fish. Toxicity of pesticide to fish. CRS Press Boca Roton FI, USA. 4:55-100.
Nwani, C.D., Lakra, W.S., Nagpure, N.S., Kumar, R., Kushwaha, B. and Srivastava, S. K. (2010). Mutagenic and genotoxic effects ofcarbosulfan in freshwater fish Channa punctatus (Bloch) usingmicronucleus assay and alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis. Food Chem. Toxicol. 48(1): 202–208.
Poet, T.S., Wu, H., Kousba, A.A., and Timchalk, C., (2003). In vitro rat hepatic and intestinal metabolism of the organophosphate pesticides chlorpyrifos and diazinon. J Toxicol. Sci. 7: 193-200.
Prashanth, M.S., David, M. and Mathad, S.G. (2005). Behavioural changes in freshwater fish, Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton) exposed to cypermethrin. J. Environ. Biol. 26(13):141-144.
Radhaiah, V., and Rao, K.J. (1988). Fenvalerate toxicity to the liver in a freshwater teleost, Tilapia mossambicus (Peters). Comp. Physiol. Ecol. 17(2):48-53.
Rao, J.V., Begum, G., Sridhar, V., and Reddy, N.C. (2005). Sublethal effects of monocrotophos on locomotor behaviour and gill architecture of the mosquito fish, Gambusia affinis. J. Enviorn. Sci. Heal. 40(6):813-825.
Rao, S.K., and Rao, K.V., (1987). Effects of sublethal concentration of methyl parathion on selected oxidative enzymes and organic constituents in the tissues of fresh water fish Tilapia mossambica. Curr. Sci. 48:526-528.
Rao, V.J, Parvathi, K., Kavitha, P., Jakka, N.M., and Pallela, R. (2004). Effect of chlorpyrifos and monocrotophos on locomotor behaviourand acetylcholinesterase activity of subterranean termites, Odontotermesobesus.Pest Manage. Sci. 60:000-000. (Published Online: 10 Nov 2004; DOI: 10.1002/ps.986).
Santhakumar, M., and Balaji, M. (2000). Acute toxicity of an organophours insecticide monocrotophas and its effects on behaviour of an air-breathing fish, Anabas testudineus (Bloch). J. Environ. Biol. 21(2):121-123.
Scherrer, E. (1992). Behavioral responses as indicator of environmental alterations: approaches, results, developments. J. App. Ichth. 8:122–131.
Slimak, K.M. (1997). Avoidance response as a sublethal effect of pesticides on Lumbricusterrestris(Oligochaeta). Soil Biol. Biochem. 29 (3/4):713-715.
Tadehl, H., and Häder, D.P., (2001). Automated biomonitoring using real time movement analysis of Euglena gracilis. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 48161-169
Timchalk, C., Nolan, R.J, Mendrala, A.L., Dittenber, D.A., Brzak, K.A., and Mattsson, J.L. (2002). A physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model for the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos in rats and humans. Toxicol. Sci. 66:34-53.
Venkata, V.R., and Nagaraju, B. (2014). Acute toxicity and Histopathological changes in freshwater fish Cirrhinusmrigalaexposed to chlorantraniliprole. J. Zool. Stud. 1(4):23-30.
Yasmashita, M., Tanaka, J., and Ando, Y., (1997). Human mortality in organophosphate poisonings. Vet. Hum. Toxicol. 39:84-85.
Citation Format
How to Cite
Cheema, N., Bhatnagar, A., & Yadav, A. (2018). Changes in behavioural and locomotory activities of freshwater fish, Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton) in response to sublethal exposure of Chlorpyrifos. Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 10(2), 620-626. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v10i2.1745
More Citation Formats:
Research Articles