The present study targeted the brain mitochondria dysfunction in Swiss albino mice through carbon tetrachloride intoxication and its treatment with Zingerone. It is proposed that brain mitochondria is the main organelle responsible for oxidative stress by producing reactive oxygen species (ROS). Swiss albino mice were divided into four groups; Group-1 was control; Group-2 was carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) toxic (1.5mg kg-1 bm i.p two days in a week.); Group-3 was pretreated with Zingerone (100 mg kg-1 b.m) a day before the administration of CCl4 and Group-4 was only Zingerone (100 mg kg-1 bm) given orally for 15days once in a day. At the end of the experiment mice were sacrificed and mitochondria were isolated from brain. Isolated brain mitochondria were further analyzed for oxidative stress marker. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) content was increased significantly by CCl4 administration in Group-II as compared to the control Group-I, while the antioxidant (GSH) and other antioxidant enzyme GPx , GR, and CAT was depleted significantly in CCl4 treated Group-II as compare to control Group-I. Zingerone protected the toxicity of brain mitochondria by reducing the lipid peroxidation and enhancing the antioxidant enzyme in Group-III and there was no significant changes were noticed in Group-IV as compared to Group-I. Overall results showed the potential effects of Zingerone in protecting the neuronal cell loss by oxidative stress. Thus, the present study indicated that the Zingerone may be used as the potential therapeutic tools for the prevention of CCl4 induced brain mitochondrial toxicity.
Brain Mitochondria, Carbon tetrachloride, Oxidative stress, Zingerone
Aeschbach, R.,Â LÃ¶liger, J.,Â Scott, B.C.,Â Murcia, A.,Â Butler, J.,Â Halliwell, B.,Â Aruoma, O.I. (1994) Antioxidant actions of thymol, carvacrol, 6-gingerol, zingerone and hydroxytyrosol. Food Chem Toxicol.Â 32(1):31-6.
Ahmad, B.,Â Rehman, M.U.,Â Amin, I.,Â Arif, A.,Â Rasool, S.,Â Bhat, S.A.,Â Afzal, I.,Â Hussain, I.,Â Bilal, .S,Â Mir, Mu (2015) A Review on Pharmacological Properties of Zingerone(4-(4-Hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2 butanone), 2015: 816364. doi: 10.1155/2015/816364. Epub 2015 May 27.
Alam Mohammad Firoz, Mohammed M. Safhi, TariqueAnwer, F. Islam, Siva Kumar and Gyas Khan (2017) Therapeutic action mechanism of zingerone against CCl4 induced liver mitochondrial toxicity in Swiss Albino mice 4th International Conference on Hepatology April 27-28, 2017 Dubai, UAE J Liver, 6:2 (Suppl) DOI:Â 10.4172/2167-0889-C1-011.
Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, Raff M, Roberts K, Walter P (2002) Molecular Biology of the Cell, 4th Ed., Garland Science: New York 401. 36.
Attanayake, A. P. and Jayatilaka, K. A. P. W. (2016) Evaluation of antioxidant properties of 20 medicinal plant extracts traditionally used in Ayurvedic medicine in Sri Lanka Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 15 (1): 50-56
Caliborne, A. Catalase activity In: Green Wald, RA (Ed) (1985) Catalase activity: CRC Hand Book of Methods for Oxygen Radical Research. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 283â€“284.
Carlberg, I. and Mannerviek B (1975) Glutathione reductase levels in rat brain. J Biol.Chem. 250: 5475-5480.
Cassarino, D. S. and Bennett JP (1999) An evaluation of the role of mitochondria in neurodegenerative diseases: mitochondrial mutations and oxidative pathology, protective nuclear responses, and cell death in neurodegeneration. Brain Res. Rev .29: 1-25.
De Souza Machado F1,Â Marinho JP,Â Abujamra AL,Â Dani C,Â Quincozes-Santos A,Â Funchal C.(2015) Carbon Tetrachloride Increases the Pro-inflammatory Cytokines Levels in Different Brain Areas of Wistar Rats: The Protective Effect of Acai Frozen Pulp.Neurochem Res.Â Sep;40(9):1976-83. doi: 10.1007/s11064-015-1693-z. Epub 2015 Aug 18.
Freeman BA, Crapo JD (1982) Biology of disease: free radicals and tissue injury. Lab Invest 47: 412-426.
H.K. Walker, W.D. Hall, and J.W. Hurst, (1990). â€œClinical Methods: The History, Physical, and Laboratory Examinations. 3rd edition. Chapter 193 (BUN and Creatinine),
HideakiÂ Kabuto, MasahiroÂ Nishizawa, MikaÂ Tada, ChieÂ Higashio, TsuyoshiÂ Shishibori and MasahiroÂ Kohno (2005) Zingerone [4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-butanone] Prevents 6-Hydroxydopamine-induced Dopamine Depression in Mouse Striatum and Increases Superoxide Scavenging Activity in Serum. Neurochemical Research 30(3):325-332.
Huang XT (2010) Pharmacokinetics studies of Zingerone in rats Globe Thesis.
Jollow DJ, Mitchell JR, Zampaglione N, Gillette JR (1974) Bromobenzeneinduced liver necrosis. Protective role of glutathione and evidence for 3,4-bromobenzeneoxide as the hepatotoxic metabolite. Pharmacology 11: 151-169.
K.R.Ritesh,A.Suganya,H.V.Dileepkumar,Y.Rajashekar,T.Shivanandappa (2015). A single acute hepatotoxic dose of CCl4Â causes oxidative stress in the rat brain. Toxicology Reports Volume 2, Pages 891-895.
Khan RA, Khan MR, Sahreen S, (2011) Protective effect of Sonchus asper extracts against experimentally induced lung injuries in rats, a novel study, Exp Toxicol Pathol, 1-7.
Lowry OH, Rosenbrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ (1951) Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J BiolChem 193: 265-275.
Mohammed M. Safhi, (2015) Zingerone Protects the Tellurium Toxicity in the Brain Mitochondria of Rats Metabolomics 5: 156. doi:10.4172/2153-0769.1000156.
Mohandas J, J.J. Marshall, G. G. Duggin, J. S. Horvath, D. Tiller. (1984) Differential distribution of glutathione and glutathione related enzymes in rabbit kidneys: possible implication in analgesic neuropathy. Cancer Res. 44: 5086â€“5091.
Oluwafemi Adeleke Ojo, Adebola Busola Ojo , Basiru Ajiboye, Christopher Akintayo , Babatunji Emmanuel Oyinloye, Abiodun Ayodele Ojo (2016) Carbon Tetrachloride-induced oxidative stress in Wistar rat brain: Neurocurative potential of Ficusasperifolia (Miq). Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Science 9 (3 )1334-1338.
Sahreen S, Khan MR, Khan RA, (2011) Hepatoprotective effects of methanol extract of Carissa opaca leaves on CCl4- induced damage in rat, BMC Compl Alternative Med, 11, 48.
Scholz, RW, Graham KS, Gumpricht E, Reddy CC (1989) Mechanism of interaction of vitamin E and glutathione in the protection against membrane lipid peroxidation. Ann NY AcadSci570: 514-517.
Utley HG, Bergheim F, Hockstein P (1967) Effect of sulfhydryl reagents on peroxidation in microsomes. Archive Biochemistry and Biophysics 118: 29-32.
Warsy AS, el-Hazmi MA (1999) Glutathione reductase deficiency in Saudi Arabia. East Mediterr Health J 5: 1208-1212.
Zick SM, Djuric Z, Ruffin MT, Litzinger AJ, Normolle DP, et al. (2008) Pharmacokinetics of 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol, and 6-shogaol and conjugate metabolites in healthy human subjects. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 17: 1930-1936.
This work is licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) Â© Author (s)