##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

A.K. Chopra Chakresh Pathak

Abstract

The main sources of metallic pollutants to the environment are the diffuse sources such as forests and agricultural soils as well as industrial and municipal wastes, which are either discharged directly or transported in to the environment. Various conventional technologies such as chemical precipitation, solvent extraction, ion exchange, membrane separation, electrochemical treatment etc. have been employed to remove metal pollutants from aqueous solution. The exploration of new technologies involves the removal of toxic metals from wastewater with the use of biological adsorption technology. The biosorption is the selective appropriate process for removal of metal ions uptake that may involve the contribution of diffusion, adsorption, chelation, complexation, coordination, or micro-precipitation mechanisms, depending on the specific substrate (biomass). In this overview, the use of the various low cost, easily available and eco-friendly biosorbents used for removal of metallic pollutants from contaminated water and their mechanism are discussed.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

Keywords

Biosorption, Metallic pollutants, Algae, Fungi, Bacteria and Agricultural by-product

References
Adesola Babarinde, N. A., Oyebamiji.Babalola, J. and Adebowale Sanni, R. (2006). Biosorption of lead ions from aqueous solution by maize leaf. International Journal of Physical Sciences, 1(1): 023-026.
Ahalya, N., Ramachandra, T.V. and Kanamadi, R.D. (2003). Biosorption of heavy metals. Res. J. Chem. Environ., 7: 71-78.
Al-fawwaz, A.T. and Wan Maznah, W.O. (2008). Biosorption of Copper Using Live and Dead Green Microalgae Isolated from Penang Rivers, Malaysia. International Conference on Environmental Research and Technology (ICERT 2008).
Aksu, Z., Sag, Y. and Kutsal, T. (1992). The biosorption of Cu (II) by C. vulgaris and Z. ramigera. Environ. Technol., 13: 579-586.
Akthar, N., Sastry, S. and Mohan, M. (1995). Biosorption of Silver Ions by Processed Aspergillus niger Biomass. Biotech. Letters, 17: 551–556.
Antunes, W. M., Aderval, S. Luna, Cristiane A. Henriques and Antonio Carlos A. da Costa (2003). An evaluation of copper biosorption by a brown seaweed under optimized Conditions. Electronic Journal of Biotechnology, 6 (3):174-184.
Apiratikul, R., Marhaba, T.F., Wattanachira, S. and Pavasant, P. (2004). Biosorption of binary mixtures of heavy metals by green macro alga, Caulerpa lentillifera. Songklanakarin
J. Sci. Technol., 26(Suppl. 1) : 199-207
Ashkenazy, R., Gottlieb, L. and Yannai. S. (1997). Characterization of acetone washed yeast biomass functional groups involved in lead biosorption. Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 55: 1–10.
Agency for toxic substances and disease registry (1999a). Toxicological profile for Lead. US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. 205-93-0606.
Agency for toxic substances and disease registry (1999b). Toxicological profile for Cadmium. US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. 205-93-0606.
ATSDR. (1994). Toxicological profile for Zinc. US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. 205-88-0608.
Ayla, O., Dursun, O. and H. Ibrahim Ekiz (2004). The Equilibrium and Kinetic Modelling of the Biosorption of Copper (II) Ions on Cladophora crispate. Adsorption, 10: 317–326.
Baker, D.E, Amacher, M.C. and Leach, R.M. (1979). Sewage sludge as a source of cadmium in soil-plant animal systems. Environ. Health Perspect., 28:45-49.
Bailey, S. E., Olin, T. J., Bricka, R. M. and Adrian, D. A. (1999). A review of potentially low-cost sorbents for heavy metals, Wat. Res., 33 (11) : 2469-2479.
Beolchini, F., Pagnanelli, F., Toro, L. and Vegliò, F. (2006). Ionic strength effect on copper biosorption by Sphaerotilus natans: equilibrium study and dynamic modelling in membrane reactor. Water Res., 40:144–152.
Beveridge, T.J. (1989). The role of cellular design in bacterial metal accumulation and mineralization. Annu Rev Microbiol., 43:147-171.
Brown, P. A., Gill, S. A. and Allen, S. J. (2000). Metal removal from wastewater using Peat. Water Res., 34 (16): 3907-3916 (10 Pages), DOI: 10.1016/S0043-1354(00)00152-4.
Cesar, R.T. and Marco, A.Z.A. (2004). Biosorption of heavy metals using rice milling by-products: characterisation and application for removal of metals from aqueous effluents. Chemosphere, 54:987–995.
Choi, S.B. and Yun, Y.S.(2004). Lead biosorption by waste biomass of Corynebacterium glutamicum generated from lysine fermentation process. Biotechnol Lett ., 26:331–6.
Churchill, S.A., Walters, J.V. and Churchill, P.F. (1995). Sorption of heavy metals by prepared bacterial cell surfaces. J. Environ. Eng., 121: 706-711.
Chandra, K., Kamala, C.T., Chary, N.S., and Anjaneyulu, Y. (2003). Removal of heavy metals using a plant biomass with reference to environmental control. International Journal of Mineral Processing, 68: 37–45.
Chen, G.Q., Zeng, G.M. and Tang, L. (2008). Cadmium removal from simulated wastewater to biomass byproduct of Lentinus edodes. Bioresour Technol., 99:7034–7040.
Crini, G. (2006). Non-conventional low-cost adsorbents for dye removal: A review. Bioresource Technology, 97: 1061-1085.
Deng, L.P., Su, Y.Y., Su, H., Wang, X.T. and Zhu, X.B. (2007). Sorption and desorption of lead (II) from wastewater by green algae Cladophora fascicularis. J Hazard Mater, 143:220–225.
Duruibe, J. O., Ogwuegbu, M. O. C. and Egwurugwu, J. N. (2007). Heavy metal pollution and human biotoxic effects. International Journal of Physical Sciences, 2 (5):112-118.
EPA. (1994). Integrated Risk Information System-Cadmium. US Environmental Protection Agency; Report nr 7440-43-9.
Figueira, M. M., Volesky, B. and Mathieu, H. J. (1999). Instrumental Analysis Study of Iron Species Biosorption by Sargassum Biomass. Environ. Sci. Technol., 33 :1840.
Fourest, E., Canal, C. and Roux, J. C. (1992). Improvement of heavy metal biosorption by mycelial dead biomasses (Rhizopus arrhizus, Muchor miehei, and Pencillium chrysogenum): pH control and cationic activation. FEMS Microbiology Reviews, 14: 325–332.
Fourest, E. and Volesky, B. (1997). Alginate properties and heavy metal biosorption by marine algae. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol., 67:33–44.
Francesca, P., Sara, M. and Francesco, V. (2003). Heavy metal removal by olive pomace: biosorbent characterisation and equilibrium modeling. Chem Eng Sci., 58:4709–4717.
Gardea-Torrsday, J. L., Tiemann, K. J., Peralta-Videa, J. R., Paeron, J. G., Delgado, M. (2004). J. Microchem., 76 : 65.
Garcia, W.J., Blessin, C.W., Sandford, H.W. and Inglett, G.E. (1979). Translocation and accumulation of seven heavy metals in tissues of corn plants grown on sludge-treated strip-mined soil. J. Agric. Food Chem., 27(5): 1088-94.
Green-Ruiz C.(2006). Mercury (II) removal from aqueous solutions by nonviable Bacillus sp. from a tropical estuary. Biores Technol., 97:1907–1911.
Guangyu, Y. and Thiruvenkatachari, V. (2003). Heavy metal removal from aqueous solution by fungus Mucor rouxil. Water Res., 37:4486-4496.
Guibal E, Roulph C. and Cloirec PL (1995). Infrared spectroscopic study of uranyl biosorption by fungal biomass and materials of biological origin, Environ. Sci. Technol. 29: 2496-2502
Gupta, G. S., Shukla, S. P., Parsad, G. and Singh, V. N. (1992). China clay as an adsorbent for dye house wastewater. Environmental Technology, 13: 925-936.
Gallardo-Lara, F., Azcon, M., Quesada, J.L. and Polo, A. (1999). Phytoavailability and extractability of copper and zinc in calcareous soil amended with composted urban wastes. J. Environ. Sci. Health B, 34(6): 1049-64.
Hameed, M. S.A. (2006). Continuous removal and recovery of lead by alginate beads, free and alginate-immobilized Chlorella vulgaris. African Journal of Biotechnology. 5 (19):1819-1823.
Hanif, M. A., Nadeem, R., Bhatti, H. N., Ahmad, N. R. and Ansari, T. M. (2007). Ni (II) biosorption by Cassia fistula (Golden Shower) biomass. Journal of Hazardous Materials B, 139:345–355.
Horsfall, M. J., Abia, A. A. and Spiff, A.I. (2003). Removal of Cu (II) and Zn (II) ions from wastewater by cassava (Manihot esculenta Cranz) waste biomass.African Journal of Biotechnology, 2 (10):360-364.
Hosea, M., Greene, B., McPherson, R., Henzl, M., Alexander, M.D. and Darnall, D.W. (1986). Accumulation of elemental gold on the alga Chlorella vulgaris. Inorg Chim Acta.,123:161-165.
Hu, M.Z.C., Norman, J.M., Faison, N.B. and Reeves, M. (1996) Biosorption of uranium by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain CSU: characterization and comparison studies. Biotechnol Bioeng, 51:237–247.
Indian standards for drinking water –Specification (BIS 10500-1991)
Incharoensakdi A. and Kitjaharn P. (2002). Zinc biosorption from aqueous solution by a halotolerant cyanobacterium Aphanothece halophytica. Curr Microbiol., 45:261–264.
Jain, S.K., Vasudevan, P., and Jha, N. K. (1989). Removal of some heavy metals from polluted water by aquatic plants: studies on duckweed and water velvet, Biol. Wastes, 28: 115–126.
Javaid, A. and Bajwa, R. (2008). Biosorption of electroplating heavy metals by some basidiomycetes. Mycopath, 6(1&2): 1-6.
Jing, Y., He, Z. and Yang, X. (2007). Role of soil rhizobacteria in phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 8:192-207.
Jooste, S. (2000). A model to estimate the total ecological risk in the management of water resources subject to multiple stressors. Water SA., 26(2): 159-166.
Kapoor A. and Viraraghavan T.(1997). Heavy metal biosorption sites in Aspergillus niger. Biores Technol., 61:221–227.
Kaewchai, S. and Prasertsan, P. (2002).Biosorption of heavy metal by thermotolerant polymer-producing bacterial cells and the bioflocculant. Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol., 24(3): 421-430.
Kuyucak, N. and Volesky, B. (1989). Accumulation of cobalt by marine alga. Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 33 (7):809-814.
Kobya, M., Demirbas, E., Senturk, E. and Ince, M. (2005). Adsorption of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions by activated carbon prepared from apricot stone. Bioresour. Technol., 96(13): 1518-1521.
Kosla, T. (1986). Studies of the levels of copper and zinc in the soil, grass and blood serum and hair of bulls from the areas irrigated with waste water from the Ner River. Pol. Arch. Water, 25(1):145-154.
Kumar, U. and Bandyopadhyay, M. (2006). Sorption of cadmium from aqueous solutions using pretreated rice husk. Bioresource Technology, 97: 104-109.
Kratochvil, D. and Volesky, B. (1998). Advances in the biosorption of heavy metals. Trends Biotechnol., 16:291–300.
Karvelas, M., Katsoyiannis, A. and Samara, C. (2003). Occurance and fate of heavy metals in the wastewater treatment process. Chemosphere, 53: 1201-1210.
Kratochvil, D., Pimentel, P. and Volesky, B. (1998). Removal of trivalent chromium by seaweed biosorbent. Environment Science and Technology, 32:2693-2698.
Lau, P. S., Lee, H. Y., Tsang, C. C. K., Tam, N. F. Y. and Wong, Y. S. (1999). Effect of Metal Interference, pH and Temperature on Cu and Ni Biosorption by Chlorella Vulgaris and Chlorella Miniata. Environmental Technology, 20 (9): 953 – 961.
Liu, Ting, Huidong Li, Zhao Li, Xiao Xiao, Lingli Chen and Le Deng (2007).Removal of hexavalent chromium by fungal biomass of Mucor racemosus: influencing factors and removal mechanism. World J Microbiol Biotechnol, 23:1685–1693.
Liao, J., Ning Liu, Yuanyou Yang, Shunzhong Luo, Qiang Luo, Zhu An, Yanmin Duan, Mantian Liu, Pengji Zhao(2008). Preliminary investigation on biosorption mechanism of 241Am by Rhizopus arrhizus. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 277(2): 329–336.
Lone, M. I., He, Z., Stoffella, P. J and Yang, X. (2008). Phytoremediation of heavy metal polluted soils and water: progress and perspectives. J. Zhejiang Univ Sci B, 9: 210-220.
Leung, W.C., Wong, M.F., Chua, H., Lo, W., Yu, P.H.F. and Leung, C.K. (2000). Removal and recovery of heavy metals by bacteria isolated from activated sludge treating industrial effluents and municipal wastewaters. Water Science and Technology, 41(12): 233-240.
Loukidou, M.X., Karapantsios, T.D., Zouboulis, A.I., Matis, K.A. (2004). Diffusion kinetic study of cadmium (II) biosorption by Aeromonas caviae. J Chem Technol Biotechnol.,79:711–9.
Lo, W., Chua, H., Lam, K.H. and Bi, S.P. (1999). A comparative investigation on the biosorption of lead by filamentous fungal biomass, Chemosphere, 39(15): 2723–2736.
Mann H (1990). Biosorption of heavy metals by bacterial biomass. In: Volesky B (ed) Biosorption of heavy metals. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp 93–137
Manju, G. N. and Anirudhan, T. S. (1997). Use of coconut fiber Pith-based Pseudo-activated carbon for Chromium (VI) removal. Indian J. Environ. Health, 39 (4):289-298.
Moustafa, M. and Idris, G. (2003). Biological removal of heavy metals from wastewater. Alexandria Engineering Journal, 42 (6): 767-771.
Muraleedharan, T.R. and Venkobachr, C. (1990). Mechanisms of biosorption of Cu(II) by Ganoderma lucidum. Biotechnol. Bioeng., 35: 320-325.
Mullen, M.D., Wolf, D.C., Beveridge, T.J. and Bailey, G.W. (1992). Sorption of heavy metals by soil fungi Aspergillus niger and Mucor Rouxii. In Soil Biol. Biochem. 24, 129-135.
Metcalf and Eddy, Inc.(1991). Waste Water Engineering: Treatment, Disposal and Reuse (3rd ed.), McGraw- Hill, New York. p. 265.
Mufti, S.A., Woods, C.A. and Hasan, S.A. (1997). Biodiversity of Pakistan. Islamabad: Pakistan Museum Natural History.
Omar, H.H. (2002). Bioremoval of Zinc ions by Scenedesmus obliques and Scenedesmus quadricauda and its effect on growth and metabolism. Int. Biodeterior. Bioderad., 50:95-100.
Omar, H.H. (2008). Biosorption of copper, nickel and manganese using non-living biomass of marine alga, Ulva lactuca. Pakistan Journal of Biological Scineces, 11(7):964-973.
Olga, M.M.F., Ramiro, J.E.M. and Cristina, M. (2008). Removal of Cd(II), Zn(II) and Pb(II) from aqueous solutions by brown marine macro algae: kinetic modelling. J. Hazard. Mater., 153:493–501.
Olayinka, K. O., Alo, B. I. and Adu, T. (2007). Sorption of heavy metals from electroplating effluents by low cost absorbent II: use of waste tea, coconut shell and coconut husk. Journal of Appplied sciences, 7(16):2307-2313.
Öztürk, A., Artan, T. and Ayar, A. (2004). Biosorption of nickel (II) and copper (II) ions from aqueous solution by Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces, 34:105–111.
Öztürk, A. (2007). Removal of nickel from aqueous solution by the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. J Hazard Mater, 147:518–523.
Preetha, R. and Kumar, T. S. (2008). Rhizosphere treatment technology for community waste water treatment, EJEAFChe, 7 (13):2661-2666.
Pino, G. H., de Mesquita, L. M. S., Torem, M. L. and Pinto, G. A. S. (2006). Biosorption of heavy metals by powder of green coconut shell. Separation Science and Technology, 41 (14): 3141-3153.
Popuri, S. R., Kalyani, S., Kachireddy, S. R. and Krishnaiah, A. (2007).Biosorption of hexavalent Chromium from aqouus solution by using prawn pond algae (Sphaeroplea).Indian Journal of Chemistry 46 (A) :284-289.
Park, D., Lim, S.R., Yun, Y.S., Park, J.M. (2008). Development of a new Cr (VI)-biosorbent from agricultural biowaste. Bioresour. Technol., 99: 8810-8818.
Patricia, M., Andrea, S. and Alicia, F. C. (2006) Simultaneous heavy metal removal mechanism by dead macrophytes. Chemospher, 62:247– 254.
Peles, J., Brewer, S. and Barrett, G. (1998). Heavy metal accumulation by old-field plant species during recovery of sludge-treated ecosystems. The Am. Mid. Naturalist, 140 (2): 245-251.
Radway, J. C., Wilde, E.W., Whitakar, M.J. and Wessman, J.C. (2001). Screening of algal strains for metal removal capabilities. J. Applied Phycol., 13:451-455.
Rajendran, P., AshokKumar, B., Muthukrishnan, J. and Gunasekaran, P. (2002). Toxicity assessment of nickel using aspergillus niger and its removal from an industrial effluent. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 201:102–103.
Ramakrishna, K. R. and Viraraghavan, T. (1997). Dye removal using low cost adsorbents. Water Science and Technology, 36:189-196.
Rezaee, A., Ramavandi, B. and Ganati, F. (2006). Equilibrium and spectroscopic studies on biosorption of mercury by algae biomass. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 9 (4): 777-782.
Raji, C. and Anirudhan, T.S. (1997). Chromium (VI) adsorption by sawdust carbon: Kinetics and equilibrium. Indian J. Chem. Technol, 4:228-239.
Remoudaki, E., Tsezos, M., Hatzikioeyian, A. and Karakoussis, V. (1999). Mechanism of palladium biosorption by microbial biomass. The effects of metal ionic speciation and solution co-ions. in International Biohydrometallurgy Symposium IBS 99: Biohydrometallurgy and the Environment toward the mining of the 21st Century.: Elsevier.
Romera, E., Gonzalez, F., Ballester, A., Blázquez, M., and Munoz, J. (2006). Biosorbtion with Algae: A statistical review. Critical Reviews in Biotechnology, 26:223-235.
Schneider, I. A. H., Rubio,J., and R. W. Smith (2001). Biosorption of Metals onto plant biomass : Exchange, Adsorption and Surface precipitation?. Int. J. Miner. Process. 62: 111–120.
Sarret, G., Manceau, A., Spadini, L., Roux, J. C., Hazemann, J. L., Soldo,Y. Eybent-Berard, L. and Menthonnex, J. J. (1999). Structural determination of Pb binding sites in Penicillium chrysogenum cell walls by EXAFS spectroscopy and solution chemistry, J. Synchrotron Radiation , 6: 414-416.
Selatnia, A., Madani, A., Bakhti, M. Z., Kertous, L., Mansouri, Y., and Yous, R. (2004). Biosorption of Ni2+ from aqueous solution by a NaOH-treated bacterial dead Streptomyces rimosus biomass. Minerals Engineering, 17: 903–911.
Schiewer,S. (1999). Modelling complexation and electrostatic attraction in heavy metal biosorption by Sargassum biomass. J. Appl. Phycology, 11:79.
Strandberg, G.W., Shumate, S.E. and Parrot, J.R. (1981). Microbial cells as biosorbents of heavy metals: Accumulation of uranium by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Appl Environ Microbiol., 41:237–245.
Suresh, B. and Ravishankar, G. A. (2004). Phytoremediation- A Novel and Promising Approach for Environmental Cleanup. Critical Reviews in Biotechnology, 24: 97–124.
Sheng, P.X., Ting, Y.P. and Paul, C. J. (2004). Sorption of cadmium, copper, cadmium, zinc, and nickel by marine algal biomass: characterization of biosorptive capacity andinvestigation of mechanisms. J Colloid Interf Sci, 275:131–141.
The Chemical Engineers’ Resource Page (2008). www.cheresources.com, 1442 Goswick Ridge Road, Midlothian, VA 23114.
Tipping, E. (2002). Cation binding by humic substances, 1st Edition; Cambridge Environmental Chemistry Series: Cambridge, UK.
Tsezos, M., E. Remoundaki, and V. Angelatou (1995). A systematic study on equilibrium and kinetics of biosorptive accumulation. The Case of Ag and Ni. Int. Biodeter. Biodegrad., 35: 129-153.
Tsezos, M. and Volesky, B. (1982). The mechanism of uranium biosorption. Biotechnol. Bioeng., 24: 385-401.
Tsezos M. and Volesky B (1981) Biosorption of Uranium and thorium. Biotechnol. and Bioeng. 23: 583 – 604.
Tomko J., Baèkor M., Štofko M. (2006). Biosorption of heavy metals by dry fungi biomass. Acta Metallurgica Slovaca, 12:447-451.
Todd, A.C., Wetmur, J.G., Moline, J.M., Godbold, J.H., Levin, S.M. and Landrigan, P.J. (1996). Unraveling the chronic toxicity of lead: an essential priority for environmental health. Environ. Health Perspect. 104 Suppl. 1:141-6.
Unz, R.F. and Shuttleworth, K.L. (1996). Microbial mobilization and immobilization of heavy metals. Curr. Opin. Biotechnol., 7(3): 307–310.
Uslu G. and Tanyol, M. (2006). Equilibrium and thermodynamic parameters of single and binary mixture biosorption of lead(II) and copper(II) ions onto Pseudomonas putida: effect of temperature. J Hazard Mater, 135:87–93.
Veglio, F. and Beolchini, F. (1997). Removal of metals by biosorption: a review, Hydrometallurgy, 44 (3): 301-316.
Venkata Subbaiah, M., Kalyani, S. Sankara Reddy, G., Veera M. Boddu and A. Krishnaiah (2008). Biosorption of Cr (VI) from aqueous solutions using Trametes versicolor polyporus fungi. E-Journal of Chemistry, 5 (3): 499-510.
Vitor, J.P.V., Cidalia, M.S.B. and Rui, A.R.B. (2007). Chromium and zinc uptake by algae Gelidium and agar extraction algal waste: Kinetics and equilibrium. J Hazard Mater, 149:643–649.
Vieira, D. M., Antonio C. A. da Costa, Cristiane A. H., Vicelma L. C. and Francisca Pessôa de França (2007). Biosorption of lead by the brown seaweed Sargassum filipendula – batch and continuous pilot studies. Electronic Journal of Biotechnology, 10 (3):368-375.
Vijayaraghavan, K. and Yeoung-Sang, Y. (2008). Bacterial biosorbents and biosorption. Biotechnology Advances, 26:266–291.
Volesky, B. (1987). Biosorbents for metal recovery. Trends Biotechnol., 5: 96-101.
Volesky, B. and May-Phillips, H.A. (1995). Biosorption of heavy metals by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 42, 797.
Volesky, B. (1990). Biosorption of Heavy Metals. CRC Press, Boca Ratton, USA.
Volesky, B. and Schiewer, S. (1999). Biosorption of metals. In: Encyclopedia of Bioprocess Technology (Flickinger M, Drew SW, eds.). New York: Wiley. 433-435.
Volesky, B., (2001). Detoxification of metal-bearing effluents: biosorption for the next century, Hydrometallurgy, 59 (2-3): 203-216.
Won, S.W., Choi, S. B. and Yun, Y. S. (2005). Interaction between protonated waste biomass of Corynebacterium glutamicum and anionic dye Reactive Red 4. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 262: 175–180.
Warhusta, M., Mcconna, Chie, G.L. and Ulmuslardsj, T. (1997). Characterization and applications of activated carbon producted from Moringa oleifera seed husk by single-step steam pyrolysis. Water Res., 31:759-766.
Williams, P.T. and Nugranad, N. (2000). Comparison of products from the pyrolysis and catalytic pyrolysis of rice husks. Energy, 25: 493-513.
Wase, J. and C. Forster (1997). Biosorbents for Metal Ions. Taylor and Francis Ltd.
Wuyep, P. A., Chuma, A. G., Awodi, S. and Nok, A. J. (2007). Biosorption of Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu and Pb metals from petroleum refinery effluent by calcium alginate immobilized mycelia of Polyporus squamosus. Scientific Research and Essay, 2 (7): 217-221.
Yun, Y. S. (2004). Characterization of functional groups of protonated Sargassum polycystum biomass capable of binding protons and metal ions. Journal Microbiology Biotechnology, 14: 29-34.
Yun, Y. S., Park, D., Park, J. M. and Volesky, B. (2001). Biosorption of trivalent chromium on the brown seaweed biomass. Environmental Science and Technology, 35: 4353-4358.
Yu, Q. and Kaewsarn, P. (1999). A model for pH dependent equilibrium of heavy metal biosorption. Korean J. Chem. Eng., 16(6): 753-757.
Yilmaz, E.I. and Ensari, N.Y. (2005). Cadmium biosorption by Bacillus circulans strain EB1. World J Microbiol Biotechnol., 21:777–779.
Ziagova, M., Dimitriadis, G., Aslanidou, D., Papaioannou, X., Tzannetaki, E.L., Liakopoulou-Kyriakides, M.(2007). Comparative study of Cd (II) and Cr(VI) biosorption on Staphylococcus xylosus and Pseudomonas sp. in single and binary mixtures. Biores. Technol., 98:2859-2865.
Citation Format
How to Cite
Chopra, A., & Pathak, C. (2010). Biosorption technology for removal of metallic pollutants-An overview. Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 2(2), 318-329. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v2i2.142
More Citation Formats:
Section
Research Articles