Vinod Kumar A. K. Chopra


The influence of seven rates of Sugar mill effluent (viz. 0, 5, 10 25, 50, 75 and 100 ml/kg soil) along with control (Bore-well water, BWW) on the physical and chemical properties of soils revealed that among various concentrations of the effluents, the irrigation with 100% effluent concentration decreased moisture content (20.44%),WHC (13.80%), BD (4.14%) and increased pH (9.56%), EC (64.28%), ECEC (149.25%), Cl- (194.71%), OC (3228.89%), HCO3- (22.34%), CO3-2 (29.38%), Na + (185.48%), K+(53.40%), Ca2+ (1262.24%), Mg2+ (1818.24%), TKN (1206.36%), NO32- (80.87%), PO43- (236.04%), SO42- (72.08%), Fe2+ (234.34%), Zn (317.72%), Cd (404.35%), Cu (374.90%), Pb (645.71%) and Cr (1024.80%) in the soil when compared to control. There was a significant (P<0.001) effect on EC, pH, Cl-, OC, HCO3- , CO32- , Na + , K + , Ca2+, Mg 2+, Fe 2+, TKN, NO3 2- , PO4 3- and SO42- , Zn, Cu, Cd, Cr and Pb and insignificant (P>0.05) effect on moisture content, WHC and bulk density after sugar mill effluent irrigation when compared to control. There was no momentous change in the soil texture of the soil. The enrichment factor (Ef) of various micronutrients in the soil was recorded in order of Cr>Pb>Cd>Cu>Zn after irrigation with sugar mill effluent.


Download data is not yet available.




Sugar mill effluent, Irrigation, Soil characteristics, Micronutrients, Enrichment factor (Ef)

Aber, J., McDowell, W., Nadelhoffer, K., Magill, A., Berntson, G., Kamakea, M., McNulty, S., Currie, W., Rustad, L. and Fernandez, I. (1998). Nitrogen saturation in northern forest ecosystems: hypotheses revisited. Bio Science, 48: 921-934.
Afshin Qishlaqi, Farid Moore and Giti Forghani (2008). Impact of untreated wastewater irrigation on soils and crops in Shiraz suburban area, SW Iran. Environ Monit Assess, 141: 257-273.
Ã…gren, G.I. and Bosatta, E. (1998). Nitrogen saturation of terrestrial ecosystems. Environ. Pollut, 54: 185-197.
Al-Harbi, A.R. Wahb-Allah, M.A. and Abu-Muriefah, S.S. (2008). Salinity and nitrogen level affects germination, emergence, and seedling growth of tomato. International Journal of Vegetable Science, 14 (4): 380-392.
APHA (2005). In: Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. American Public Health Association (APHA), American Water Works Association (AWWA) & Water Environment Federation (WEF), 21st edition, Washington, DC. pp 1368.
Arindam, K. and Prasad, A.B. (1999). Alteration in physicochemical characteristics of soil under stress of carbonaceous sugar mill. Ad. Plant Sci. 12: 103-109.
Ayyasamy, P. M., Yasodha, R., Rajakumar S., Lakshmanaperumalsamy, P., Rahman P. K. S. M. and Sanghoon Lee (2008). Impact of Sugar Factory Effluent on the growth and Biochemical characteristics of Terrestrial and Aquatic Plants. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol, 81:449–454.
Barzegar, A.R., Yousefi, A. and Daryashenas, A. (2002). The effect of addition of different amounts and types of organic materials on soil physical properties and yield of wheat. Soil Tillage Res., 247 (2): 295 – 301
Baruah, A.K., Sharma, R.N. and Borah, G.C. (1993). Impact of sugar mill and distillery effluent on water quality of river Galabil, Assam. Indian J Environ Hlth., 35:288–293.
Beligh Mechri, Fethi Ben Mariem, Mohamed Baham, Salem Ben Elhadj and Mohamed Bibin Paulose, Siba P. Datta, Raj K. Rattan, Pramod K. Chhonkar (2007). Effect of amendments on the extractability, retention and plant uptake of metals on a sewage-irrigated soil. Environmental Pollution 146: 19-24.
Biswas, A.K., Mohanty, M., Hati, K.M. and Misra A.K. (2009). Distillery effluents effect on soil organic carbon and aggregate stability of a Vertisol in India. Soil & Tillage Research, 104 (2): 241-246.
Bharagava, R.N., Chandra, R. and Rai, V. (2008). Phytoextraction of trace elements and physiological changes in Indian mustard plants (Brassica nigra L.) grown in post methanated distillery effluent (PMDE) irrigated soil. Bioresource Technology, 99 (17): 8316-8324.
BIS (1991). In: Indian Standards for drinking water-Specification (BIS 10500:1991) retrieved on 20th April, 2007 from (http:// www.bis.org.in).
Bouyoucos, G.J. (1962). Hydrometer method improved for making particle size analysis of soils. Agron. J., 54: 464.
Brady, N. C. and Weil, R. R. (2005). The nature and properties of soils, 13th ed. Delhi: Pearson Education.
Buurman, P.B., Van Langer, and Velthrost, E.J. (1996). In: Manual of Soil and water analysis. Backhuys Publisher, Leiden, The Netherland.
Carter, M.R. (1993). In: Soil sampling and method of analysis, Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL.
Celik, I. (2005). Land use effects on organic matter and physical properties of soil in a southern Mediterranean highland of Turkey. Soil & Tillage Research, 83: 270- 277.
Chandra, R., Bharagava, R.N., Yadav, S. and Mohan D. (2009). Accumulation and distribution of toxic metals in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and Indian mustard (Brassica campestris L.) irrigated with distillery and tannery effluents. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 162 (2-3): 1514-1521.
Charman, P.E.V. and Murphy, B.W. (1991). In: Soils: Their Properties and Management. In a Soil Conservation Handbook for New South Wales. Sydney University Press. Sydney.
Chin-Ching Lin, Arun, A.B., Rekha, P.D. and Chiu-Chung Young (2008). Application of wastewater from paper and food seasoning industries with green manure to increase soil organic carbon: A laboratory study. Bioresource Technology, 99 (14): 6190-6197.
Chonker, P.K., Datta, S.P., Joshi, H.C. and Pathak, H. (2000). Impact of industrial effluents on soil health and agriculture-Indian experience. Part I: distillery and paper mill effluents. J. Scientific Ind. Res., 59: 350–361.
Chopra, A.K., Chakresh Pathak and Parasad, G. (2009). Scenario of heavy metal contamination in agricultural soil and its management. J. Appl. & Nat. Sci., 1(1): 99-108.
García-Orenes, F., Guerrero, C., Mataix-Solera, J., Navarro- Pedreño, J., Gómez, I. and Mataix-Beneyto J. (2005). Factors controlling the aggregate stability and bulk density in two different degraded soils amended with biosolids. Soil and Tillage Research, 82 (1): 65-76.
Gomez, E., Ferreras, L., Toresani, S., Ausilio, A. and Bisaro V. (2001). Changes in some soil properties in a Vertic Argiudoll under short-term conservation tillage. Soil and Tillage Research, 61 (3-4): 179-186.
Hassanli Ali Morad, Mohammad Ali Ebrahimizadeh, Simon Beecham (2009). The effects of irrigation methods with effluents and irrigation scheduling on water use efficiency and corn yields in an arid region. Agricultural Water Management, 96(1): 93-99.
Hati, K.M., Biswas, A.K., Bandyopadhyay, K.K. and Misra, A.K. (2007). Soil properties and crop yields on a vertisol in India with application of distillery effluent. Soil and Tillage Research, 92 (1-2): 60-68.
Haynes, R. J. and Naidu, R. (1998). Influence of lime, fertilizer and manure applications on soil organic matter content and soil physical conditions: a review. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 51:123-137.
Hussain, Intizar, Liqa Raschid, Munir, A., Hanjra, Fuard Marikar, Wim van der Hoek., (2001). Framework for analyzing socioeconomic, health and environmental impacts of wastewater use in agriculture, IWMI working paper 26. International Water Management Institute, Colombo: Sri Lanka.
Jeremy, L. Darilek, Biao Huang, Zhigang Wang,Yanbing Qi, Yongcun Zhao, Weixia Sun, Zhiquan Gu and Xuezheng Shi (2009). Changes in soil fertility parameters and the environmental effects in a rapidly developing region of China. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 129: 286–292.
Kannan, A. and Upreti, Raj K. (2008). Influence of distillery effluent on germination and growth of mung bean (Vigna radiata, L.R. Wilczek) seeds. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 53(1-2): 609-615.
Kaushik, A., Bala R. Kadyan and Kaushik, C.P. (1996). Sugar mill effluent effects on growth and photosynthetic pigments and nutrients uptake in wheat seedlings in aqueous Vs. soil medium. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 87: 39-46.
Kaushik, A. Nisha, R., Jagjeeta, K. and Kaushik, C.P. (2005). Impact of long and short term irrigation of a sodic soil with distillery effluent in combination with bioamendments. Bioresource Technology, 96 (17): 1860-1866.
Kim, K. H., and Kim, S. H. (1999). Heavy metal pollution of agricultural soils in central regions of Korea. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 111: 109-122.
Khaleel, R., Reddy, K.R. and Overcash, M.R. (1981). Changes in soil physical properties due to organic waste applications: a review. Journal of Environmental Quality, 10:133-141.
Miller, C.E. and Turk, L.M. (2002). Fundamentals of soil science. Biotech. Books, 1123/74, Trinagar, Delhi: 157.
Mohan, S.C., Samra, J.S, Srivastava, A.K. and Sharda, V.N. (2007). Training manual on soil conservation and watershed management, Vol-I, soil, Agronomy and socio-economic aspects. Central soil & water conservation research & training institute, Dehradun, (U.K), India: pp 42.
Mohammad Ajmal and Ahsan Ullah Khan (1985). Effects of a textile factory effluent on soil and crop plants. Environmental Pollution (Series A), 37: 131-148.
Mohammadi, A. Torkashvand, Haghighat, N. and Shadparvar, V. (2010). Effect of paper mill lime sludge as an acid soil amendment. Scientific Research and Essays, 5(11): 1302-1306.
Nastri, A., Ramieri, N.A., Abdayem, R., Piccaglia, R., Marzadori, C. and Ciavatta C. (2006). Olive pulp and its effluents suitability for soil amendment. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 138 (2): 211-217.
Osadebamwen Ikpotokin Osemwota (2010). Effect of abattoir effluent on the physical and chemical properties of soils. Environ Monit Assess, 167 (1-4): 399-404. (DOI 10.1007/s10661-009-1058-7).
Osemwota, I. O., Ogboghodo, A. I., Okpefa, G. O. and Njukwe, K. E. (2000). Characterization of soils of Edo State of Nigeria for the computation of phosphorus fertilizer factor. Indian Journal of Agricultural Research, 34(2): 71–77.
Osemwota, I. O., Ogboghodo, I. A. and Aghimien, E. A. (2005). Phosphorus retention in soils of Nigeria: A review. Agricultural Review, 26(2): 148–152.
Patterson, S. J., Chanasyk D. S., Mapfumo, E. and Naeth, M. A. (2008). Effects of diluted Kraft pulp mill effluent on hybrid poplar and soil chemical properties. Irrig Sci, 26: 547–560. (DOI 10.1007/s00271-008-0115-2).
Pathak, H., Joshi, H.C., Chaudhary, A., Chaudhary, R., Kalra, N. and Dwiwedi, M.K. (1999). Soil amendment with distillery effluent for wheat and rice cultivation. Water Air Soil Pollut., 113: 133–140.
Ramana, S., Biswas, A.K., Kundu, S., Saha, J.K. and Yadava, R.B.R. (2002). Effect of distillery effluent on seed germination in some vegetable crops. Bioresource Technology, 82 (3): 273-275.
Ramulu Sree, U.S. DR. (2001). Reuse of municipal sewage and sludge in agriculture. Scientific publishers (India), Jodhpur: 86.
Raverkar, K.P., Ramana, S., Singh, A.B., Biswas, A.K. and Kundu, S. (2000). Impact of post methanated spent wash (PMS) on the nursery raising, biological Parameters of Glyricidia sepum and biological activity of soil. Ann. Plant Research, 2(2): 161- 168.
Roy, P. Ratna, Jagdish Prasad and Joshi, A.P. (2007). Effect of sugar factory effluent on some physico-chemical properties of soils- A case study. Journal of Environ. Science & Engg., 49(4): 277-282.
Sanjay, K. Solomon (2005). Environmental Pollution and Sugar Industry in India its Management in: An Appraisal. Sugar Tech., 7 (1): 77-81.
Sharif A. Salah and Suzelle F. Barrington (2006). Effect of soil fertility and transpiration rate on young wheat plants (Triticum aestivum) Cd/Zn uptake and yield. Agricultural Water Management, 82: 177–192.
Stoecio M.F. Maia, Stephen M. Ogle Carlos C. Cerri and Carlos E.P. Cerri (2010). Changes in soil organic carbon storage under different agricultural management systems in the Southwest Amazon Region of Brazil. Soil & Tillage Research, 106: 177–184.
Tan, K. H. (1996). Determination of micro elements. In: Soil sampling, preparation and analysis, (pp. 189–198). New York: Marcel Dekker INC.
Thompson, G., Swain, J., Kay, M. and Forster, C.F. (2001). The treatment of pulp and paper-mill effluent: A review. Bioresource Technology, 77 (3): 275-286.
Tse-Ming Lee, Hung-Yu Lai and Zueng-Sang Chen (2004). Effect of chemical amendments on the concentration of cadmium and lead in long-term contaminated soils. Chemosphere, 57: 1459–1471.
Vinod Kumar, Chopra, A.K., Chakresh Pathak and Sachin Pathak (2010). Agro-potentiality of paper mill effluent on the characteristics of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Fenugreek). New York Science Journal, 3(5): 68-77.
Webber, L.R. (1978). Incorporation of non-segregated noncomposted solid waste and soil physical properties. J. Environ. Qual., 7: 397-400.
Weil, R.R. and W. Kroontje 1979). Physical condition of a Davidson clay loam after five years of heavy poultry manuare applications. J. Environ. Qual., 8: 387-392.
Zalawadia, N.M.and Raman, S. (1994). Effect of distillery wastewater with graded fertilizer levels on sorghum yields and soil property. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci., 42: 575–579.
Citation Format
How to Cite
Kumar, V., & Chopra, A. K. (2010). Influence of sugar mill effluent on physico-chemical characteristics of soil at Haridwar (Uttarakhand), India. Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 2(2), 269-279. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v2i2.134
More Citation Formats:
Research Articles